Appendix E. Lumbee Indians in the first federal census of Robeson—1790

From: Britt, Morris F. Appendices to Implosion: A history of the Lumbee Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina. Unpublished book-length manuscript.

Dr. Britt has specified the following usage limitations: Not to be reprinted for publication without written consent of the author. May be used privately.

All those listed in Section A classified themselves as "All other Free Persons" unless indicated otherwise. Section B contains "all other Free Persons" living in homes other than their own. Total = 277. Robeson County lists 533 slaves.


Name Number in household Other notes
Atkins, Silas Listed himself "over age 16," as White, with 2 white females, 2 "other" and 8 slaves.  
Branch, Randal 11 land west of Indian Swamp in 1790; Deed
Book B, pp. 247-248
Braveboy, Lydia 7 Joshua Braveboy owned land on the Mill prong of the Raft Swamp, Deed Book A, pp. 72-74;the name was later chansgd to Brayboy in current
Brooks, Betty 4  
Bussell, William 5 William Bussell sold land on Gum Swamp and the Buck Pond to a blacksmith named Duncan Mc Lauchlan 6 April 1792, Deed Book C, pp. 43-441
Carter, Emanuel 5  
Chavers [Chavis], Ishmael 10 owned land south of Drounding Creek
and south of Ashpole Swamp in 1785, Deed Book A, pp. 35-371
Chavers [Chavis], Richard 3  
Cox, Gilbert 6 Owned 8 slaves [owned land west of
Drounding Creek purchased in 1787, Deed Book A, pp. 37 -39; an additional 200 acres on same Location, Deed Book B, pp. 270-271; land north of Ten Mile Swamp, Deed Book B, p. 313; and 340 acres in 1793 in Mount Pleasant Community called Matthews Bluff from Abraham Barnes, Deed Book C, pp. 302-303.]
Cumbo, Cannon 11 Owned 1 slave
Cumbo, Gilbert 1  
Cumbo, John 3 [The Cumbo familes lived near each other]
Cumbo, Nath'l 4  
Dees, Arthur 9 Listed as White but with a frequent Lumbee name.
Evans, Richard 4  
Hammonds, Jacob 4

[Jacob and John Hammond/Hammons owned land West of Saddletree Swamp, adjacent to each other, patented 26 Nov. 1789, Deed Book B, p. 100]

Hammonds, John 9 [Patented land on Saddletree Swamp before 1786, Deed Book A, p. 8-10; an unlisted Richard Hammons patented land south of Drowning Creek 9 Nov. 1784, Deed Book C, pp. 311-313].
Harding [Hardin], Soloman 6  
Hunt, James 4  
Hunt Lewis 3  
Irvin, Betty 2 [Jared Irvin/Ervin owned land northeast of Little Marsh which was sold to Archd. Little, Sr. in 1789, 1789, Deed Book A, pp. 306-307; Jared sold a slave woman, Sabery and her two children, Bett and Jim, to Joseph Wood for 86 pounds, l0 shilling and 9 pence in 1791, Book C, pp. 26-27).].

James, Solomon

9 including 1 White Female [Solomon James owned land north and northeast of Drounding Creek in 1773, Deed Book B, p. 29-301
Johnston, Isaac 1  
Johnston, James 1  
Kersey, America 3 "Free White Females"
Kersey, Betty 3 [The Kersey families lived close together]
Kersey, Peter 7  
Kersey, Redding 1 White poll only
Kersey, William 4  
Layton, Henry 1 With I WFM 16 + [Name not found in deed indexes or the 1850 census of Robeson]
Lockileer, Jacob 6*  
Lockileer, John 1  
Lockileer, John 4  
Lockileer, Joseph 6  
Lockileer, Malcolm 6  
Lockileer, Randall 10  
Lockileer, Rober 9  
Lockileer, Samuel 1  
Lockileer, William 11  
Lowry, James 6 with 3 slaves [Next door to Charles Oxendine and near Richard Chavers]
Newsom, Ethelred 3 [Not found in current Robeson County]
Oxendine, Benjamin 1  
Oxendine, Charles 1  
Oxendine, Charles 11  
Oxendine, John 1  

Ransome, Simon

6 [Miller for John Cade Esq. in 1788]
Revil[s], Burwel 1  
Revil[s], Edmund 9  
Roberts, Ishmael 10 [lived on Saddletree Swamp adj. Jacob Blount, John Baggett and Thomas lvy in 1788]
Scott, John 1  
Stapleton, Alexr 7

[On Arons Swamp1783-1788]

Tutor, Dread 3 [James Lowrey sold 100 acres on Juniper Branch to Maurice Tuder 23 Jan. 1791 for 20 pounds, Deed Book B, pp. 286-291; on 9 July 1792, Tuder sold the same 100 acres back to James Lowry for 30 pounds, Deed Book C, pp. 82-83. Considering Lowry's price of patenting the land, he appears to have made 10 pounds on the transactionin one year and retained the property for resale]
Valentine, Charles 5 [Listed as a "free Negroe" in the 1768 Tax List of Bladen in McKissack's tax district].

Not listed was Guthridge Locklear who lived on Cades Mill Swamp in 1786 (Deed Book C, pp. 27-28)


B. "Free other" living with White families

Name Number in household Other notes
Alford, Jacob 1 7 slaves
Atkins, Silas   (see above)
Barnes, Elias 6 8 slaves
Braswell, Arthur 1 2 slaves
Bullard, John 1 Possibly Lumbee
Cade, John 5 17 slaves
Cade, Stephen 1 3 slaves
Campbell, Hugh 2 2 slaves
Evans, Richard 4  
Hailes, Robert 2  
Humphrey, Lucy 1 5 slaves; elderly widow of Chambers Humphrey of Raft Swamp.
Kennedy,William 1 1 slave
Kitchen, Joseph 1  
Oquin, Charity 1  
Pittman, Newett 1  
Thompson, William 1 5 slaves, lived on Back Swamp
Willis, John 1 14 slaves


A total of 35 Lumbee Indians lived and probably worked in what appear to be 18 predominantly White homes. Some were indentured servants and some were live-in help for the elderly. Ten of the homes also had slaves and probably had large plantations or households to be maintained which suggests that the Lumbees were probably household help or farm workerswho were boarding there.

We do not know with certainty that all of the above 277 individuals listed as "All other Free persons" were Lumbee because some may have been free Blacks. It is logical that in Robeson most were Lumbees.