Schmalleger, Frank. “Criminal Justice-Related Magical Practices Among the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.” Paper presented at the Conference of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, May 1980. 11 p.
Schmalleger and his students interviewed ten Lumbee rootworkers, focusing on the origins, transmission, and powers of rootworking. Some 25 rootworkers practice in the county, with clients of all races. Their methods include courtroom dusting, spells, roots, the evil eye, and dirt from someone’s tracks.