Bell, Ronnie Antonio. “Nutrient intake and effectiveness of a community-based nutrition education program in reducing dietary cancer risk in adult Lumbee Indian women in Robeson County, North Carolina.” Diss. U of North Carolina at Greensboro, 1993.
Bell obtained information on intake from among 41 dietary constituents from 120 Lumbee women in two age groups (21-40 (64%) and 41-60). He also measured their nutritional intake using a 3-day food record, 24-hour recall, and a food frequency questionnaire. Another questionnaire gathered information on health, eating habits, and demographics. This data on Lumbee women was compared to data gathered through the NHANES II and NFCS national surveys and from studies of other Native Americans. Bell also administered a nutrition education program to 29 Lumbee women in six weekly sessions, assessing the results using a pretest, two posttests, and a 3-day food record.
Bell's research hypotheses were that the diet of Lumbee women was lower in fiber and higher in fat and calories than is recommended and that a community-based, culturally sensitive education program could achieve changes in diet that would lower their cancer risks. The first study found that percentage of calories from fat was higher (13-30%) than recommendations of national health organizations but was still much like averages from national surveys. Percentage of calories from carbohydrates was somewhat lower than recommended but, again, was much like national averages.
Results on all other parameters of the food frequency questionnaire compared closely to both recommendations and U.S. averages. 92% of Lumbee women surveyed said they considered themselves healthy, but 52% considered their diet not good or poor. 48% exercise on a regular basis, 23% smoke, and 11% consume alcohol. 38% take a vitamin supplement regularly. The nutrition education program did not cause significant changes in the three month period but did achieve improvements in eating patterns. The dissertation's extensive appendices include tables of results from the tests.