Levin, S., V. Lamar Welch, R. A. Bell, and M. L. Casper. “Geographic variation in cardiovascular disease risk factors among American Indians and comparisons with corresponding state populations.” Ethnicity & Health 7.1 (2002): 57-67.
This study compared the self-reported incidence of several health-related behaviors, and the self-reported overall health, of a sampling of two Southeastern tribes and several Wisconsin and Minnesota tribes to these same behaviors and overall health in the populations of the states as a whole. The Southeastern tribes are the Lumbee and the Catawba (northern South Carolina). This study is the first which looks at cardiovascular disease and relevant risk factors among Native Americans and includes Southeastern tribes.
Data on the Lumbee was gathered as part of the Lumbee Diabetes and Health Survey (LDHS), conducted initially in 1998 and 1999. Data for North Carolina as a whole came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The LDHS gave telephone surveys to 1,121 Lumbees aged 25 or older, chosen at random from the tribal roll. The survey asked about cardiovascular disease (having ever had a heart attack or stroke), diabetes (having been told by a doctor or nurse that you have it), hypertension (having been told by a doctor or nurse that you have high blood pressure), current health status (excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor), and current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco.
Tables show the demographics of Lumbee participants (compared to the other two tribal surveys); prevalence of each health behavior; and comparisons, on each health behavior, of American Indians to people overall in the state.
For the Lumbee, none of the health behaviors was significantly higher, for either gender, than for North Carolinians as a whole. The Lumbee showed lower incidence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease than the other tribes surveyed, except for incidence of use of chewing tobacco. The authors speculate that these results might be attributed to the fact that the Lumbee do not live on a reservation.