Oxendine, David. “Racial identity development among Lumbee American Indian college students on a predominantly white campus.” Diss (Counselor Education). North Carolina State U, 1995. 122 pages.
Oxendine studied forty American Indian students at a large, Southeastern, predominantly white research university. Students ranged from freshman through graduate level. Contact concerning the study was first made through three American Indian student organizations, but volunteers were solicited from a list of all American Indian students on the campus. Used three racial identity instruments (Racial Identity Attitude Scale, RIAS-B; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, MEIM; and American Indian Racial Identity Scale, AIRIS) as well as the Rosenburg Self-Esteem Scale, RSE. Racial identity was then compared to self-esteem and to grade point average. Found the Lumbee scores on the Racial Identity Attitude Scale to be similar to those for African Americans, suggesting this test could be valid for the Lumbee if some changes in wording were made. The Lumbee scored higher on Immersion/Emersion and lower on Internalization subscales than did African Americans in two other studies. Results from the American Indian Racial Identity Scale showed that it may well be a valid starting point for formulating a racial identity development instrument for use with the Lumbee.