Quandt, S. A., R. A. Bell, J. G. Spangler, and L. D. Case. “Osteoporosis in a multi-ethnic population: risk factors and bone mineral density.” The Gerontologist 15 October 2001: 170.
The authors studied a sample of 240 African American, Native American, and White women aged 60 or older in Robeson County. They measured heel BMD and administered a questionnaire to gather data on the women's history of fractures, calcium intake, use of alcohol and tobacco, and medication use. Results showed little OST (2%) but high rates of osteopenia (25% in Native Americans, 22% in African Americans, and 47% in Whites). All races had high rates of diuretic use and thyroid conditions--which are risk factors. Other problems were high tobacco use and low calcium intake among Native Americans and African Americans. The researchers concluded that the absolute risk of OST for minority women in Robeson County is high.