Chronology of significant events in the history of Robeson County Indians

This chronology originally appeared in The Lumbee Indians: An annotated bibliography, with chronology and index (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1994), pages 179-186. All the events in the chronology have had their dates verified. Whenever possible, they were verified in published sources, with preference given to primary sources as close as possible to the date of the event.

This chronology emphasizes events that demonstrate Lumbee identity, as recognized by historians, anthropologists, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (in Code of Federal Regulations Title 25, Part 83, "Procedures for establishing that an American Indian group exists as an Indian Tribe," especially 25 CFR 83.7, "Mandatory Criteria for Federal Acknowledgment"), the general public, and—most importantly—the Lumbee themselves. Events demonstrating Robeson County Tuscarora identity are also included.

The portion of the chronology that appeared in the 1994 book has been significantly expanded. The chronology has also been updated with events from 1993 through January, 2007. Subsequent events are being selected for inclusion.

Bibliography entries that begin with numbers (rather than letters) and do not have links, are from the 1994 book-length bibliography. These entries will be added to the site as time allows. In the meantime, please consult a copy of the 1994 book if you need the bibliography entry.

Format of chronology entries: Date(s) / Event / [Source of date]

12,000 B.C. – 1700. Paleo-Indian, Archaic, and Woodland Periods. Projectile points discovered in the Robeson Trails Archaeological Survey prove Robeson County was occupied by Indians during these periods. [Bibliography entry 1071, p. 15]

c. 1700 – 1708. John Lawson encountered the Hatteras Indians, many of whom had gray eyes. They reported several White ancestors. This passage in Lawson's travel narrative, A new voyage to Carolina, is frequently cited as evidence for the Lost Colony Theory of Lumbee origins. [Bibliography entry 505, p. (69)]

1754. An agent for the North Carolina governor, reporting on men who could potentially be drafted as troops and on the status of Indians, went into Bladen County (which then included Robeson). He discovered Lumbee ancestors and described them this way: "Drowning Creek on the head of Little Pee Dee, fifty families, a mixt crew, a lawless people, possessing the land without patent or paying any quit rents . . . ." [Dial and Eliades, The only land I know, pp. 30-31]

1773. Cheraw Indians, ancestors of the Lumbee, appear in "A list of the mob railously assembled together for Bladen County." The list includes many surnames that continued to be found among the Lumbee throughout their history. [Lumbee Petition, Vol. III, 83.7(e), page 3; Testimony of Dr. Jack Campisi before the Committee on Resources, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearing on H.R. 898, April 1, 2004, p. 12]

1792. The earliest Lumbee church was Saddletree Meeting House, located five miles north of Lumberton on the Stage Road, according to a Hammons deed dated October 3, 1792. This was also the earliest recorded church deed in Robeson County. Documentation of this deed is based on correspondence with Franklin Grill, historian of the United Methodist Church's North Carolina conference. [Bibliography entry 424, p. 11]

1835 (June 4 – July 11). A North Carolina Constitution was enacted which disfranchised free Negroes, free mulattoes, and free persons of mixed blood. The constitution also forbade them to bear arms. [N.C. Constitution, Amendments of 1835, article 1, sec. 3, clause 3. Rpt. in North Carolina Government, 1585–1979 (Raleigh, 1981), p. 820.]

1865 (March 3). Execution of Allen and William Lowry by the Home Guard. Beginning of Lowry Band period. [Bibliography entry 1118, pp. 3, 15]

1874 (c. Feb. 23). Steve Lowry was killed by bounty hunters, marking the end of the Lowry Band period. [Bibliography entry 1118, p. 241]

1875. Publication of Mary C. Norment’s The Lowrie History, the earliest detailed account of the Lowry Band. [Bibliography entry 1083]

1875 (Sept. 6 – Oct. 11). The revised North Carolina Constitution restored the vote to free persons of color (males, 21 or older). [North Carolina Constitution, Amendments of 1875, article 6 section 1]

1877 (October). The Burnt Swamp Baptist Association was organized during a meeting at Old Burnt Swamp Church. The Rev. Cary Wilkins held the first session. ["Burnt Swamp Association is 75 Years Old," Biblical Recorder Saturday, Feb. 7, 1953, p. 3]

1885 (Feb. 10). Passage of a North Carolina law naming Robeson County Indians “Croatan Indians” and providing for separate schools. [Bibliography entry 1306]

1887 (March 7). Passage of a North Carolina law establishing a Croatan normal school (the predecessor of UNC-Pembroke). [Bibliography entry 1308]

1887 (Fall). Beginning of classes at the Croatan Normal School. [Bibliography entry 264, p. 19]

1888. Publication of Sir Walter Raleigh’s Lost Colony, by Hamilton McMillan, proposing Lumbee descent from the Lost Colonists and Manteo’s tribe. [Bibliography entry 506]

1888 (Dec. 4). A petition with 54 signatures, asserting Croatan Indian identity and requesting funds for the Croatan Normal School, was recorded as received by the U.S. Congress [Congressional Record, 50th Cong., 2nd Sess., 4 Dec. 1888, p. 25]. This petition has been cited as Robeson County Indians’ first attempt at federal recognition and their first request for assistance from the federal government (see Bibliography entry 1380, pp. 1, 100). Reprinted in Bibliography entry 49, exhibit B1. See Bibliography entry 57, Table 11, for a list of names on this petition and on the 1887 petition to the North Carolina legislature.

1890-1920. Period of Croatan Indian settlement in Bulloch County, Georgia. The Croatans migrated from Robeson County to work in the turpentine industry. Here they continued their identity as Indians by establishing a community—complete with an Indian-only church, school, and cemetery—and also by marrying other Croatans and maintaining attachments to family in Robeson County. [Bibliography entry MAYN014]

1891. Publication of "The Lost Colony of Roanoke: Its fate and survival," by Stephen B. Weeks, in Papers of the American Historical Association [item 508]. This journal article is frequently cited in discussions of the Lost Colony Theory of Lumbee origins. It is the first scholarly publication on the Lumbee (then known as Croatans). Weeks has been described as "the first professional historian trained in the 'scientific' or German school of historical investigation to work in North Carolina" [Encyclopedia of North Carolina, UNC Press, 2006, p. 576]

1910 (January 24). Introduction of a bill in the U.S. House of Representatives to change the tribe's name from Croatan to Cherokee. The bill did not pass. [Bibliography entry 1320]

1911 (Mar. 8). A North Carolina law changed the tribal name from “Croatan Indians” to "Indians of Robeson County.” [Bibliography entry 1322]

1912 (March 2). Charles F. Pierce, U.S. Indian Service, reported on a visit to Pembroke and recommended against federal funding of a boarding school for county Indians. [Bibliography entry 1324]

1913 (March 11). Passage of a North Carolina law changing the tribal name from “Indians of Robeson County” to “Cherokee Indians of Robeson County.” [Bibliography entry 1327]

1913 (July 10). Introduction of a bill in the U.S. Senate to change the tribe's name from Indians of Robeson County to Cherokee Indians of Robeson County. The bill did not pass. [Bibliography entry 1329]

1914 (Sept. 19). Completion of the McPherson Report, the most detailed study of the origins and conditions of Robeson County’s Indians that had ever been undertaken. It was transmitted to the Senate on Jan. 4, 1915. [“Letter of Transmittal,” Bibliography entry 49, p. 5]

1920s. Formation of the Robeson County Indian High School Athletic Conference, which allowed Indian high school students to compete in baseball, football, and (primarily) basketball. The Robeson County School Board forbade Indian teams to compete against teams from county White or Black schools. During its existence, the league allowed teams from Pembroke, Prospect, Magnolia, Union Chapel, Fairmont, Fairgrove, Les Maxwell (Cumberland County), and Hawkeye (Hoke County) to play each other. Member teams also played teams in nearby Hamlet, Rockingham, and Wadesboro. The league lasted, under various names, until 1967. [Bibliography entry BRAY009]

1924 (March 20). Introduction of a bill in the U.S. House to change the tribal name to Cherokee. The bill did not pass. [Bibliography entry 1339]

1929 (September). Nationally known photographer Doris Ulmann spent two days photographing Indians in Pembroke and Elrod. She was guided through the Indian community by Malinda Locklear. She photographed Rhoda Locklear, Gertrude Blue, and others. [Robesonian September 30, 1929] She had just returned from a visit to Bryson City, North Carolina, where she photographed Cherokee Indians. [Philip Walker Jacobs, The life and photography of Doris Ulmann, UP of Kentucky, 2001, pp. 63-64]

c. 1930’s –1945. Period of heaviest Lumbee migration to Baltimore. [Bibliography entry 944, pp. 43-44]

1932 (May 9). A bill was introduced in the U.S. Senate to recognize and enroll the tribe as Cherokee Indians. The bill did not pass. [Bibliography entry 1345]

1933. Appearance of John R. Swanton’s paper, “Probable Identity of the ‘Croatan Indians'.” Swanton concluded that the Croatan Indians "are descended mainly from certain Siouan tribes of which the most prominent were Cheraw and Keyauwee." This paper spurred a movement for federal recognition as Siouans. [Bibliography entry 535]

1933 (May 1). Bills were introduced in the U.S. House and Senate to recognize and enroll the tribe as Cheraw Indians. [Bibliography entry 1346]

1934 (Jan. 23). A Senate report recommended amending the May 1, 1933 bill (see above) to rename the tribe Siouan Indians, with no federal wardship or government benefits [Bibliography entry 1347]

1934 (May 23). A House report similar to the Jan. 23 Senate report (see above) was issued. The Secretary of the Interior opposed the bill unless it forbade federal wardship or government benefits. [Bibliography entry 1348]

1935 (April 8). Felix Cohen’s memorandum states that Robeson County Indians with 1/2 or more Indian blood can organize and receive federal benefits under the Wheeler-Howard Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. [Bibliography entry 606]

1937 (August 17). Indians were chosen as jurors in Superior Court in Robeson County for the first time in many years. J. E. Chavis and Joe Brooks had posted a notice in the Robesonian newspaper of a meeting at St. Anna Church to discuss the exclusion of Indians from jury service. Indians then sent a petition to both the court and the county commissioners. [Robesonian April 19, 1928: 4; Robesonian Aug. 11, 1937: 1; Greensboro Daily News Aug. 18, 1937]

1938 (June 25). A certificate of incorporation for Red Banks Mutual Association was filed in the North Carolina Secretary of State’s office. [Robesonian 27 June 1938: 2]

1938 (Dec. 12). William Zimmerman (federal Office of Indian Affairs) notified Joseph Brooks that 22 of 209 Siouan Indians tested by Carl Seltzer were eligible for federal recognition under the Wheeler-Howard Act. [Bibliography entry 610]

1940 (May 31). Cherokee Indian Normal School graduated its first four-year-degree students (four men and one woman). [Robesonian 3 June 1940: 3]

1940 (Dec. 5). First performance of Ella Deloria’s pageant, “The Life Story of a People,” in the Cherokee Indian Normal School gymnasium. [Robesonian 6 Dec. 1940: 1]

1942 (October). Opening of the Odum Home Indian Orphanage. [Bibliography entry 887]

1945 (April 24). The Town of Pembroke held its first popular election for town officials. They had previously been appointed by the governor. [Bibliography entry 781]

1948 (March 5). Dr. R. D. Wellons, president of Pembroke State College for Indians, appealed to the North Carolina Legislature to amend the 1885 law that created a separate educational system for Indians because it prevented graduates of Pembroke State College for Indians from being admitted to the graduate programs of other University of North Carolina colleges. [News and Observer (Raleigh, NC) March 5, 1948]

1953 (April 20). Passage of a North Carolina law changing the tribal name to “Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.” [Bibliography entry 1359]

1954 (Dec. 5). Early Bullard was sworn into office as judge of the Maxton Recorder’s Court. He was the county’s first Indian judge and was said to be the first Indian to hold a county-level elected office. [Robesonian 7 Dec. 1954: 9; Bibliography entry 790]

1956 (June 7). Passage of the federal Lumbee Act (PL 84-570), designating the Indians living in Robeson County “Lumbee Indians of North Carolina” but denying them the federal services normal afforded federally acknowledged tribes. [Bibliography entry 1363]

1958 (Jan. 18). Lumbee routing of the Ku Klux Klan, near Maxton. [Bibliography entry 1161]

1958 (May 31). Tracy Sampson was elected as Robeson County’s first Indian county commissioner. [Robesonian 2 June 1958: 1]

1961 (April). Lumbee Indians hosted the Southeastern Regional Preparatory Conference for the American Indian Chicago Conference. Lacy W. Maynor and his daughter Helen led a committee of 32 Lumbees in organizing the meeting at Pembroke State College. They were invited by Sol Tax and Nancy Lurie to host the meeting. ["Pembroke Indian Conference Ends." Scottish Chief 24 April 1961; Laurence M. Hauptman, Tribes & tribulations, U of New Mexico P, 1995, pp. 100-101]

1962 (April 15). The Declaration of Indian Purpose was presented to President John F. Kennedy during a White House ceremony. Among the thirty-two Indian presenters, all of whom had been active in the American Indian Chicago Conference, was Helen Maynor [Scheirbeck], Lumbee. [Laurence M. Hauptman, Tribes & tribulations, U of New Mexico P, 1995, p. 99]

1963 (April 1). Harry West Locklear began his term as the first Indian member of the Robeson County Board of Education. [Bibliography entry 99]

1963 (June). English E. Jones became the first Lumbee president of Pembroke State College. He had served as interim president since Sept., 1962. [Bibliography entry 54, pp. 60, 84]

1966 (March 17). The Ku Klux Klan had announced plans to hold another rally in Maxton. Due to the impact of the 1958 Klan routing and the feelings that still existed among the Lumbee, a Superior Court judge issued a temporary restraining order forbidding Klan rallies within 25 miles of Robeson County. The restraining order was dissolved on April 22, 1966. [Bibliography entries 1194 and 1195]

1967. Publication of Lew Barton’s The Most Ironic Story in American History, the first detailed, commercially published history of the Lumbee Indians. [Bibliography entry 53]

1968 (Jan. 31). The Regional Development Association was chartered. It was later renamed Lumbee Regional Development Association (LRDA). [Bibliography entry 57, p. 209]

1968 (c. April 23). For the first time, nonwhite voter registration in Robeson County exceeded White registration. [Bibliography entry 796]

1968 (c. July). Red Banks Mutual Association, the last surviving Farm Security Administration cooperative farming project, was dissolved [Bibliography entry 1158]. The corporation was suspended by the North Carolina Secretary of State on 9-21-70. The charter expired on 9-21-75. [From correspondence]

1969. Brantley Blue was the only Indian appointed to the 4-member Indian Claims Commission. [Bibliography entry 1010]

1969 (July 1). Pembroke State College gained regional university status and was renamed Pembroke State University. [Bibliography entry 1366]

1970 (May 25). First formal meeting of Independent Americans for Progress–called the first Lumbee political organization. [Bibliography entry 798]

1970 (June 19). Formal inauguration of Baltimore’s American Indian Study Center, which had operated informally for two years. [Bibliography entry 935]

1970 (July 4). First Lumbee Homecoming was held at Pembroke. [Robesonian 5 July 1970: 8A]

1970 (September). Bostic Locklear and a group of Lumbees filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court in Fayetteville, North Carolina, asking that execution of Robeson County's school desegregation plan be blocked and new district boundaries drawn. The Lumbee parents asserted that the desegregation plan would result in loss of all-Indian schools and the Indian heritage they foster. [Robesonian September 11, 1970, p. 1; Bibliography entry 114] The lawsuit was dismissed in September, 1978. [Bibliography entry 114]

1970 (Sept. 10). End of Indian students’ sit-ins at the all-Indian schools they previously attended, in protest of Robeson County’s new desegregation plan. [Bibliography entry 113] This sit-in by an estimated 250 students received national coverage. [Bibliography entry 116]

1971. Publication of W. McKee Evans’ To Die Game, a comprehensive history of the Henry Berry Lowry Band. [Bibliography entry 1118]

1971 (July 20). Passage of a North Carolina law creating the North Carolina State Commission of Indian Affairs. [1971 Session Laws of North Carolina ch. 1013] Bruce Jones, Lumbee, served as Director from 1976-1994. [Bibliography entry HEAL001]

1971 (Oct. 28). A bill was introduced in the U.S. Senate to give Lumbees the same rights and benefits of other Indians not living on reservations by repealing one sentence of the Lumbee Act. The bill did not pass. [Bibliography entry 1367]

1971 (Dec. 22). Opening ceremonies were held for the Lumbee Bank of Pembroke. [Robesonian 23 Dec. 1971: 2] Renamed Lumbee Guaranty Bank, it was the first Indian-owned bank in the United States [see http://www.lumbeeguarantybank.com/history.htm]. It ranked number 54 in North Carolina's Financial 100 for the year 2012. [Business North Carolina June 2012; charts, pp. 57-39]

1971 (December 30). Formation of the Eastern Carolina Indian Organization. [Bibliography entry 724]

1972 (August). Pembroke State University’s American Indian Studies Department began offering courses. [Robesonian 3 Aug. 1972: 16]

1972 (September). Horace Locklear became the first Indian to practice law in North Carolina [Bibliography entry 804]

1972 (October). 150 Tuscaroras (Eastern Carolina Indian Organization) went to Washington to support the Trail of Broken Treaties. They participated in the occupation of the BIA Building and stole 7,200 pounds of records. [Bibliography entry 751, p. 7]

1972 (Dec. 15). Tuscarora Indians in Robeson and surrounding counties organized and elected Howard Brooks as their chief. [Bibliography entry 727]

1973 (Jan. 18). The first weekly issue of the Carolina Indian Voice was published. [Bibliography entry 56 p. (3)]

1973 (March 15). Henry Ward Oxendine became the first Indian to serve in the North Carolina House of Representatives. [Robesonian 18 March 1973: 1A]

1973 (March 18). Burning of Old Main (Pembroke State University’s first brick building, constructed in 1923). [Bibliography entry 229]

1974 (Jan. 22). A bill was introduced in the U.S. House to strike out the "Nothing in this act . . . " sentence of the Lumbee Act. A more explicit bill, with the same purpose, was introduced in the U.S. Senate on September 25, 1974. The bills did not pass. [Bibliography entry 1368]

1974 (Sept. 30). Indian Education Act funds were granted to Robeson County schools and LRDA (Lumbee Regional Development Association), predicated on the Lumbees’ status as Indians. Beginning of Robeson County’s Title IV, Part A Compensatory Indian Education Act program. [Bibliography entry 140, p. 434]

1975. Publication of Dial and Eliades’ The Only Land I Know, a comprehensive history of the Lumbee. [Bibliography entry 54]

1975 (early March). Adolph Dial was one of five Indians appointed to the American Indian Policy Review Commission. [Bibliography entry 644]

1975 (April 4). In Maynor v. Morton, the U. S. Court of Appeals held that the “Original 22” remained eligible for benefits under the Wheeler-Howard Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, despite the Lumbee Act. [Bibliography entry 1372]

1975 (April 23). The U.S. Court of Appeals, in Janie Maynor Locklear v. North Carolina State Board of Elections, ruled that double-voting was unconstitutional. Under Robeson County's double-voting system, residents of the towns could vote for both the town and the county school boards, but county residents could vote only for the county school board. [Bibliography entry 1370]

1975 (Sept. 5). Guilford Native American Association was incorporated. [Bibliography entry 988, p. (1)]

1976 (Jan. 5). Metrolina Native American Association was incorporated. [Bibliography entry 1000]

1976 (July 1). First performance of the outdoor drama, “Strike at the Wind!” [Robesonian 2 July 1976: 1]

1978 (Nov. 22). Lumbee River Legal Services was incorporated by Julian T. Pierce. [Articles of Incorporation, Lumbee River Legal Services] On July 1, 2002, the name was changed to Legal Aid of North Carolina—Pembroke Office.

1979 (August 1). A 10-page U.S. Comptroller General decision stated that the intention of the final paragraph of the Lumbee Act was “to leave the rights of the Lumbee Indians unchanged,” not to bar their access to all benefits they might receive by virtue of their status as Indians. Each program from which the Lumbees seek aid must be examined separately. [Bibliography entry 1374]

1980. Publication of Karen Blu’s The Lumbee Problem. [Bibliography entry 55]

1980 (Feb. 16). Rededication of Old Main, seven years after it was gutted by arsonists. [Bibliography entry 255]

1980 (c. June 18–20). Lumbees were voted into membership of the National Congress of American Indians at the NCAI’s mid-year conference in Reno, Nevada. [Carolina Indian Voice 31 July 1980: 1]

1981. Publication of Robert W. Reising's article, "The literature of the Lumbee Indians: An introduction," which contains a 56-item "Selected bibliography of belletristic literature by and--or about the Lumbee Indians." [Bibliography entry 352]

1983 (Dec. 7). Lumbee attorney Arlinda Faye Locklear was the first Native American woman to argue before the U.S. Supreme Court, in the case of Solem v. Bartlett [Bibliography entry TPKU001, p. 243]

1984 (Jan. 26). The Tuscarora Tribe of North Carolina was chartered by the state of North Carolina. It encompasses the Hatteras Tuscaroras, Drowning Creek Tuscaroras, and Eastern Carolina Tuscaroras. [Bibliography entry 755, p. 68]

1985 (December). Establishment of a corporation to manage planning for the North Carolina Indian Cultural Center, marking the beginning of that project. [Carolina Indian Voice 21 March 1991: 5]

1986 (Nov. 1). Jimmy Earl Cummings was killed by Deputy Kevin Stone. The event prompted the formation of Concerned Citizens for Better Government and the beginning of a new era of Indian activism in Robeson County. [Bibliography entry 1201 p. A5]

1987 (March 5). Pembroke State University celebrated its centennial with many activities. [Bibliography entry 268]

1987 (Dec. 17). Submission of the Lumbee Petition to the Branch of Acknowledgement and Research, Bureau of Indian Affairs. [Bibliography entry 1380, p. 58] The Petition requested full federal acknowledgment of the tribe and asserted their descent from an Indian community comprised largely of Cheraw Indians and related Siouan-speaking peoples, based on the opinion of anthropologist John R. Swanton (see pages 17-19 of the Petition). The Petition took at least 6-9 people six years to research and write, at a cost of over a million dollars. The supporting documentation was so voluminous that a rental truck was used to transport it to the BIA. [Sider, Living Indian histories, 2003, p. xiv]

1988. Completion of the Robeson Trails Archaeological Survey, documenting 314 previously unrecorded sites in the county. [Bibliography entry 1071]

1988 (Feb. 1). Eddie Hatcher and Timothy Jacobs, Tuscaroras, held Robesonian newspaper employees hostage for 10 hours, protesting inequities toward Robeson County Indians. [Bibliography entry 1206]

1988 (March 8). Robeson County residents voted to merge their five school systems into one system. [Carolina Indian Voice 10 March 1988: 1]

1988 (March 26). Murder of Julian Pierce, Lumbee lawyer and judgeship candidate. [Bibliography entry 1218]

1988 (July 14, July 29). In the 100th Congress, H.R. 5042 was introduced on July 14 and S. 2672 was introduced on July 29. These bills would extend full federal acknowledgment to the Lumbee. The bills did not pass. [Search for, and view, the full text at thomas]

1989 (Jan. 3). Dexter Brooks, Lumbee, became North Carolina’s first Indian Superior Court judge. [Carolina Indian Voice 5 Jan. 1989: 1; Bibliography entry 866]

1989 (May 3, May 11). In the 101st Congress, H.R. 2335 was introduced on May 11 and S. 901 was introduced on May 3. These bills would extend full federal acknowledgment to the Lumbee. The bills did not pass. [Search for, and view, the full text at thomas]

1989 (Oct. 23). A 5-page memorandum written by William G. Lavell, Associate Solicitor of Indian Affairs, was sent to the Deputy to the Assistant Secretary—Indian Affairs regarding the Deputy's request for assistance in interpreting the 1956 Lumbee Act. The Deputy requested this assistance because there was legislation in Congress seeking to give full federal acknowledgment to the Lumbee. Lavell states at the outset of his memorandum that "the meaning of the Lumbee Act is, unfortunately, not clear" (p. 2). After considerable analysis, however, he concludes, "I am constrained to advise you that the act of July 7, 1956 (70 Stat. 254) is legislation terminating or forbidding the Federal relationship within the meaning of 25 CFR 83.3(e) and 83.7(g) and that, therefore, you re precluded from considering the application of the Lumbees for recognition" (p. 5). This ruling meant that the BIA could not continue its work on processing the petition the Lumbee submitted in 1987. Lavell adds that the Assistant Secretary could recommend either that Congress amend the 1956 act to remove the "nothing-in-this act" sentence and thus allow the BIA to process the Lumbee Petition, or that Congress could directly grant full federal acknowledgment to the Lumbee. [Bibliography entry 685]

1989 (Oct. 27). Joseph B. Oxendine was installed as the second Lumbee president (now called chancellor) of Pembroke State University. [Bibliography entry 277]

1989 (Dec. 5). The Tuscarora Tribe of North Carolina submitted a petition for federal recognition to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. [Bibliography entry 756]

1990. Publication of The Lumbee Methodists: Getting to know them. A folk history, by Joseph Michael Smith and Lula Jane Smith. This book describes a rich history of Methodist churches, conferences, ministers, and service to the Lumbee community. [Bibliography entry 422]

1990 (December 1). The North Carolina Indian Business Association was established during a meeting at Pembroke State University. R. D. Locklear, Lumbee, chaired the committee (appointed by the North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs) that investigated whether or not to form the association. [Fayetteville Observer Sunday, December 2, 1990]

1991 (March 13, May 9). In the 102nd Congress, H.R. 1426 was introduced on March 13 and S. 1036 was introduced on May 9. These bills would extend full federal acknowledgment to the Lumbee. The bills did not pass. [Search for, and view, the full text at thomas]

1992 (Nov. 3). Ronnie Sutton, Lumbee, was the first state representative elected from North Carolina’s new, largely Indian House District 85. [Carolina Indian Voice 5 Nov. 1992: 1]

1993. Publication of Gerald Sider’s Lumbee Indian histories, a comprehensive anthropological and historical study of the Lumbee. [Bibliography entry 59]

1993 (January 5). In the 103rd Congress, H.R. 334 was introduced on January 5. This bill would extend full federal acknowledgment to the Lumbee. The bill did not pass. [Search for, and view, the full text at thomas]

1994. Publication of The Lumbee Indians: An annotated bibliography, with chronology and index (Jefferson, NC: McFarland), by Glenn Ellen Starr. This book lists and describes 1,400 published and unpublished sources of information about the Lumbee and Tuscarora Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina and other areas. It also includes an index to the Carolina Indian Voice, 1973-1993, comprising 50 pages of references to articles about Lumbee people and their life, concerns, and accomplishments.

1994. The North Carolina Language and Life Project at North Carolina State University began fieldwork on the Lumbee dialect. [from correspondence] The distinctive characteristics of Lumbee English differentiate Lumbee speakers from White and Black speakers in Robeson County. They also allow Lumbee speakers to recognize other Lumbees and, in some cases, discern their community of origin in Robeson County. This research (much of it by Walt Wolfram, Clare Dannenberg, and Natalie Schilling-Estes) has resulted in academic theses, dissertations, journal articles, and book chapters, as well as a videotape and a book for nonspecialist audiences.

1994 (August 29). An election was held for a Lumbee tribal chairman and for 21 members of the tribal council. Dr. Dalton Brooks received the highest number of votes for tribal chairman (39.9%); but because he did not receive 40%, the tribal constitution allowed for a run-off election. [Carolina Indian Voice Thursday, Sept. 1, 1994: 1]

1996 (July 1). Based on a bill passed by the North Carolina General Assembly, Pembroke State University was renamed the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. [North Carolina Session Laws, 1995-603, H. 1072]

1994 (early September). The Lumbee Constitutional Assembly declared Dr. Dalton Brooks the winner of the election for Lumbee tribal chairman and certified the winners of the tribal council election. The Rev. James A. Hunt, second place in votes for tribal chairman, did not call for a run-off election. [Carolina Indian Voice Thurs., Sept. 8, 1994: 1]

1994 (September 10). The Lumbee Constitutional Assembly gathered at the Performing Arts Center, Pembroke State University, to sign the Constitution of the Lumbee Tribe of Cheraw Indians. The Constitution was written, over a period of more than a year, by 42 delegates chosen by Indian churches; they were assisted by three technical advisers. [Carolina Indian Voice Thursday, Sept. 22, 1994: 1]

1994 (November 8). Glenn Maynor was elected as Robeson County's first Indian sheriff. Unofficial election night results were 18,741 votes (56.48%) for Maynor and 14,442 votes (43.52%) for James E. Sanderson. Indian voter turnout was a record 65%. [Carolina Indian Voice Thursday, November 10, 1994:1]

1998 (Monday, November 9). Superior Court proceedings began in the Lumbee Tribal Council's lawsuit against LRDA (Lumbee Regional Development Association). The Tribal Council asserted that LRDA was misrepresenting itself as the tribe's government, ignoring the tribal elections held in 1994. [Carolina Indian Voice Thurs. November 12, 1998:1]

1999 (January 11). Judge Howard Manning released his 96-page decision in the Superior Court case, Lumbee Tribe of Cheraw Indians v. Lumbee Regional Development Association, in which the court was asked to determine which, if either, entity was the governing body of the Lumbee Tribe. Manning's ruling was that: neither entity was the governing body; the tribe was entitled to—and should—quickly hold an election or referendum to determine what type of government it wanted to have if it obtained full federal acknowledgment; and LRDA could continue to act on behalf of the tribe, with limited authority, in relation to grants, federal acknowledgment, and the North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs until the tribe, by voter turnout of at least 30%, selected a tribal government. [Bibliography entry LUMB004 pp. 93-95]

1999 (May 19). Dr. Michael Cummings, Lumbee, director of missions of the Burnt Swamp Baptist Association, became president of the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina. He was the first Native American, and the first minority, to serve in this role. [Bibliography entry CHAM001; Bibliography entry RAIL001]

2000 (November 7). Lumbees voted on a new tribal government—a chairman, and 23 representatives from 18 districts. [Fayetteville Observer November 8, 2000]

2000 (December 29). Superior Court Judge Howard Manning certified the results of the November 7 tribal government election. [News and Observer (Raleigh, NC) December 31, 2000: B1]

2001 (January 18). The newly elected Lumbee tribal government was sworn in: Tribal Chairman Milton Hunt, as well as 23 tribal council members. [Bibliography entry LUMB008]

2001 (February 7) The North Carolina Indian Economic Development Initiative (NCIEDI) was incorporated by the state of North Carolina as a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization. Lonnie Revels, Lumbee, was the chairman.

2001 (November 7). Lumbees voted in a tribal election to approve the tribal constitution. [Bibliography entry WITT013]

2002. Publication of A history of the Burnt Swamp Baptist Association and its churches 1877-2002. The book's tabular data shows that this association of Indian churches in Robeson and neighboring counties grew from 3 churches in 1881 to 67 churches and 10,263 members in October 1999. [examined the book; statistics from pages 143 and 154]

2002 (December). A 1% systematic sample of Lumbee tribal membership files was studied for residency patterns. It was found that 64.6% of Lumbees lived in the tribe's core area (Pembroke, Maxton, Rowland, Lumberton, Fairmont, St. Pauls, or Red Springs). Most of these communities are exclusively, or almost exclusively, Lumbee. The same sample was studied for intratribal marriage. It was found that 70% of those who were married had married a Lumbee. [Testimony of Dr. Jack Campisi before the Committee on Resources, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearing on H.R. 898, April 1, 2004, p. 11]

2003. Publication of Herbal remedies of the Lumbee Indians, by Arvis Boughman and Loretta Oxendine. This book presents, in encyclopedic format, 161 herbs and their health-related uses by the Lumbee. [Bibliography entry BOUG003]

2003 (February 14, February 25). In the 108th Congress, H.R. 898 was introduced on February 25 and S. 420 was introduced on February 14. These bills would extend full federal acknowledgment to the Lumbee. The bills did not pass. [Bibliography entry TOPR003; Bibliography entry TOPR001]

2003 (March 8). In a Lumbee tribal referendum, voters amended the constitution to change the tribe's territory from the state of North Carolina to Robeson, Hoke, Scotland, and Cumberland counties. [Carolina Indian Voice March 20, 2003: 1]

2003 (November 1-5). The National Indian Education Association held its annual convention in Greensboro, North Carolina. This was the first time the association's convention had been held on the East Coast. Seventeen Lumbees served on the local planning committee. [Robesonian Monday, October 13, 2003]

2004. Karen Blu's essay, "Lumbee," was published in the Southeast volume of the Smithsonian Institution's encyclopedic Handbook of North American Indians. [Bibliography entry BLU0006]

2004 (September 21). Opening of the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C. This branch of the Smithsonian Museum had been in preparation since 1989, when it was established by legislation. A Lumbee, Helen Maynor Scheirbeck, was a founding member of its Board of Trustees. [Bibliography entry DAVI001] The basketry of Loretta Oxendine and the pottery of her husband, Herman Oxendine, were selected for display in the museum. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is the only other North Carolina tribe represented in the museum. [Fayetteville Observer October 24, 2004]

2005 (January 4, March 17). In the 109th Congress, H.R. 21 was introduced on January 4 and S. 660 was introduced on March 17. These bills would extend true federal acknowledgment to the Lumbee. The bills did not pass. [Bibliography entry LUMB013]

2005 (July 5). The North Carolina General Assembly passed a bill designating UNC-Pembroke "North Carolina's Historically American Indian University". [Robesonian July 5, 2005; Bibliography entry UNCP006]

2005 (August 5). The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) informed UNC-Pembroke that it is the only school that will be permitted to use its American Indian mascot, nickname, or imagery at post-season events sanctioned by the NCAA. An NCAA committee studied the issue in relation to 18 universities for two years and required reports from each university. ["NCAA: UNCP will keep the Braves." UNC-P University Newswire Tues., Aug. 9, 2005]

2007 (January 4, January 18). In the 110th Congress, H.R. 65 was introduced on January 4 and S. 333 was introduced on January 18. These bills would extend full federal acknowledgment to the Lumbee. [Bibliography entry HR65/2007; Bibliography entry S333-2007] The bills did not pass. [Search for, and view, the full text at thomas]