Federal acknowledgment

Key Sources

Record Number Citation
KNIC001

Knick, Stanley. “Because it is right.” The Museum of the Southeast American Indian Center. U of North Carolina at Pembroke, 1998. Updated 29 September 2010. Key source

KNIC031

Knick, Stanley. "Because it is right." Native South 1 (2008): 80-89. key-source.gif Key source

BLU0005

Blu, Karen I. “5. Region and recognition: Southern Indians, anthropologists, and presumed biology.” In: Anthropologists and Indians in the new South. Ed. Rachel A. Bonney and J. Anthony Paredes. Tuscaloosa: Alabama UP, 2001. Pages 71-85; notes on pages 238-240. Key source

WILK002

Wilkins, David E. “The Lumbee tribe and its quest for federal recognition: Lumbee Centurions on the Trail of Many Years.” In: A good Cherokee, a good anthropologist. Ed. Steve Pavlik. Los Angeles: American Indian Studies Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 1998. Pp. 149-75. Key source

BORD001

Bordewich, Fergus M. Killing the white man's Indian: reinventing Native Americans at the end of the twentieth century.  New York: Doubleday, 1996. [See Chapter 2, “We Ain't Got Feathers and Beads,” pp.60-92.] Key source

PARE001

Paredes, J. Anthony. “Paradoxes of modernism and Indianness in the Southeast.” American Indian Quarterly 19.3 (Summer 1995): 341-60. Key source

WILK007

Wilkins, David E. "Breaking into the intergovernmental matrix: the Lumbee Tribe's efforts to secure federal acknowledgment." Publius: The journal of federalism 23. 4 (Fall 1993): 123-142. Key source

Sources

Record Number Citation
SHIL055

Shiles, Bob. "Ruling means tribe can seek recognition through Interior Department." Robesonian [Lumberton, NC] January 13, 2017.

SHIL047

Shiles, Bob. "Bill puts gaming in play for Lumbees; Lumbees would have final say in a vote." Robesonian (Lumberton, NC). September 10, 2016.

WOOL009

Woolverton, Paul. "Senate bill would give Lumbees full recognition and millions of dollars." Fayetteville Observer [Fayetteville, NC] September 7, 2016. 

SHIL046

Shiles, Bob. "Senate panel to discuss Lumbee recognition." Robesonian [Lumberton, NC] September 6, 2016.

LOCK062

Locklear, James. “Sen. Burr headlines first Lumbee Economic Summit, visits Robeson Community College.” The Robesonian (Lumberton, NC). June 2, 2016

SHIL018

Shiles, Bob. “Godwin’s DC trip makes history – Uses time to push federal recognition.” The Robesonian (Lumberton, NC) January 17, 2016.

LOCK059

Locklear, Eric. “New group wants Lumbee people to guide government.” The Robesonian (Lumberton, NC). April 13, 2015

BROO001

Brooks, Paul. “Tribal chair doubts validity of study.” The Robesonian (Lumberton, NC). February 28, 2015 

SHIL032

Shiles, Bob. “Study: Congress cool to recognition – Lumbee professor surveys legislators.” The Robesonian (Lumberton, NC). February 15, 2015

HANN001

Hannel, Eric. Reinterpreting a Native American Identity: Examining the Lumbee Through the Peoplehood Model. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2015.

SCHI001

Schilling, Vincent. “Lumbee Could Decide NC Senate Race—Tribe Ignored in Recent Debate.” Indian Country Media Today. September 12, 2014.

LOWE001

Lowery, Malinda Maynor. “Malinda Maynor Lowery: No ‘honor’ at all.” Newsandobserver [Raleigh, NC] August 30, 2014.

PATE001

Pate, J.L. “Burr talks economy, Lumbee recognition.” Laurinburg Exchange [Laurinburg, NC] August 15, 2014.

OURV001

“Our View: Improper spending imperils Lumbee housing work.” Fay Observer [Fayetteville, NC] July 30, 2014.

LOWE003

Lowery, Malinda Maynor. "Racial science and federal recognition: Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow South." In Recognition, sovereignty struggles, & indigenous rights in the United States: a sourcebook. Ed. Amy E. Den Ouden and Jean M. O'Brien. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2013. Pp. 65-94.

LOWR006

Lowry, David S, and James L. Peacock. For the Healing of the Nations: Lumbee Indian Community, Christian Missions, and the Transformative Power of Intervention. Diss. Chapel Hill, N.C: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2012.

BLOG058

"Lumbee bill back in Senate." Laurinburg Exchange [Lauringburg, NC] June 17, 2011.

BLOG062

"Lumbee must finally get full federal recognition." Winston-Salem Journal [Winston-Salem, NC] May 20, 2011.

BLOG051

Rockett, Ali. "Fox show spotlights Lumbee Tribe tonight." Robesonian March 25, 2011. 

BLOG038

Douglas, Donnie, and Bob Shiles. "Lumbee bill back before the House; Swett surprised by quick action." Robesonian. February 26, 2011.

BLOG064

Hixenbaugh, Mike. "Lumbee Tribal chairman challenges ordinance." Fayetteville Observer [Fayetteville, NC] January 27, 2011.

BLOG041

Unknown Author. "Missteps-Lumbee recognition effort off to a bumpy beginning." Fayetteville Oberserver. January 9, 2011.

BLOG047

"McIntyre re-introduces bill for Lumbee recognition" The Robesonian January 6, 2011.

BLOG045

"Editorial: Lumbees' pursuit of gambling killed tribal recognition effort." News and Record [Greensboro, NC] January 5, 2011.

BLOG006

Unknown author. "Collapse - Gambling gambit killed Lumbee recognition bill" Fayetteville Observer. January 2, 2011.

BLOG010

Hixenbaugh, Mike. "Lawyer alleges secret Lumbee meetings with gaming reps." Fayetteville Observer January 1, 2011.

BLOG042

Locklear, Arlinda. "Op-ed: Making good on a promise to the Lumbee." Fayetteville Observer. December 29, 2010. 

BLOG007

Hixenbaugh, Mike. "Congress adjourns without taking action on Lumbee recognition." Fayetteville Observer. December 24, 2010.

BLOG046

Saxton, Michelle. "North Carolina lawmakers continue to push Lumbee recognition." Lumina News [Wrightsville Beach, NC] December 23, 2010.

BLOG043

Lowry, Steve. "Lumbee heritage." News and Observer. December 17, 2010.

BLOG044

Mike Hixenbaugh. "Lumbee bill left out of Senate earmarks bill." Fayetteville Observer. December 16, 2010. 

BLOG048

Cohen, David Steven. "Valid objections to recognition by Congress." News and Observer [Raleigh, NC] December 15, 2010.   

BLOG008

Emanuel, Ryan. "A Persistent People's Long Quest for Justice." News and Observer. December 15, 2010.

BLOG015

"Editorial: Again - Another Lumbee recognition bill runs aground." The Fayetteville Observer. 07 October 2010. http://fayobserver.com

BLOG017

Hixenbaugh, Mike. "Lumbee Tribe honors tireless advocate." The Fayetteville Observer. 6 July 2010. http://fayobserver.com

BRYA002

Bryan, Susan Montoya. “American Indians ask for voice on federal court.” Associated Press. July 2, 2010

BLOG033

Locklear, Arlinda. "Part 4: Reflections on the Battle for Lumbee Recognition." YouTube. 28 April 2010.

BLOG030

Locklear, Arlinda. "Part 7: Reflections on the Battle for Lumbee Recognition." YouTube. 28 April 2010.

BLOG034

Locklear, Arlinda. "Part 3: Reflections on the Battle for Lumbee Recognition." YouTube. 28 April 2010.

BLOG031

Locklear, Arlinda. "Part 6: Reflections on the Battle for Lumbee Recognition." YouTube. 28 April 2010.

BLOG036

Locklear, Arlinda. "Part 1: Reflections on the Battle for Lumbee Recognition." YouTube. 28 April 2010.

BLOG028

Locklear, Arlinda. "Part 9: Reflections on the Battle for Lumbee Recognition." YouTube. 28 April 2010.

BLOG032

Locklear, Arlinda. "Part 5: Reflections on the Battle for Lumbee Recognition." YouTube. 28 April 2010.

BLOG029

Locklear, Arlinda. "Part 8: Reflections on the Battle for Lumbee Recognition." YouTube. 28 April 2010.

BADB001

"Bad bet: Tribe gambles its assets on recognition bid." Fayetteville Observer Sunday, April 18 2010.

LOWE001

Lowery, Malinda Maynor. "Telling our own stories: Lumbee history and the federal acknowledgment process." American Indian Quarterly 33.4 (2009): 499-522.

MAYN020

Maynor, Malinda. "Practicing sovereignty: Lumbee identity, tribal factionalism, and federal recognition, 1932-1934." Foundations of First Peoples' sovereignty: history, education & culture. Ed. Wiethaus, Ulrike. New York: Peter Lang, 2008. 57-95.

LOCK051

Locklear, Mark. "Lumbee recognition: What does it really mean?" Robesonian Monday, June 18, 2007.

BRIC001

Brice, Pam. "Shuler co-sponsors bill with adversary." Hendersonville news [www.hendersonvillenews.com Henderson, Transylvania, and Polk Counties, North Carolina] April 27, 2007.

TRIB001

“Tribal Matters.” Editorial. Fayetteville Observer January 28 2007. 327 words.

LUMB001

“Lumbee Benefits Revisited.” Fayetteville observer January 19, 2007.

MCIN004

“Mcintyre Reintroduces Lumbee Bill.” Robesonian January 6 2007. 278 words.

OXEN009

Oxendine, David Bryan. Perceived fairness of an ethnic validation procedure: implications for Lumbee federal recognition. Saarbrucken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller, 2007.

OXEN007

Oxendine, David B., and Rupert W. Nacoste. "Who would claim to be that, who was not? Evaluations of an ethnic validation procedure." Journal of applied social psychology 37.7 (2007): 1594-1629.

BATE001

Bates, Denise Eileen. “Up from obscurity: Indian rights activism and the development of tribal-state relations in the 1970s and 1980s Deep South.” Ph.D. U of Arizona, 2007.

SHAF001

Shaffrey, Mary M. "Lumbee bill gets panel's OK, stalls; Dole, Burr say it's dead for this year." Winston-Salem journal Thursday, August 3, 2006.

LOCK040

Locklear, Mark. "Lumbee vote put off until Aug. 2." Robesonian Wednesday, July 26 2006.

S660HRG

109th Congress. United States Senate. Committee on Indian Affairs. "Hearing on S. 660: To provide for the acknowledgment of the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, and for other purposes." First Session. July 12, 2006.

LOCK039

Locklear, Mark. "Lumbee recognition: Senate panel sets date." Robesonian Thursday, June 29 2006.

LOCK038

Locklear, Mark. "Lumbees mark 50 years of recognition, seek more." Robesonian Friday, June 09, 2006.

JENK030

Jenkins, Venita. “Lumbee recognition stalled.” Fayetteville Observer.  May 31, 2004.

QUIL001

Quillen, Martha. “Lumbee recognition could spawn casino push.” News and Observer (Raleigh, NC) Sunday, May 16, 2004.

REYN002

Reynolds, Jerry. “Indigenous geography: invisible history of tribes gets a hearing.” Indian country today May 11, 2004.

REYN001

Reynolds, Jerry. “Indigenous geography: invisible history of tribes gets a hearing.” Indian country today May 11, 2004.

JENK031

Jenkins, Venita. “Siouan kin contest Lumbee recognition.” Fayetteville Observer April 25, 2004.

HICK001

Hicks, Michell. “There are many factors to consider as Lumbee seek tribal status.” Asheville Citizen-Times (Asheville, NC). April 25, 2004

STAF004

Staff Report. “Cherokee say Lumbee decision should be made by Indian Affairs.” Asheville Citizen-Times (Asheville, NC). April 3, 2004

MCIN003

McIntyre, Dole, and Tim Funk.  “Federal recognition of Lumbee Indian tribe raises questions.” Knight-Ridder/Tribune business news April 2, 2004: ITEM04093039.

JENK029

Jenkins, Venita. “House hears plea for Lumbee recognition.” Fayetteville Observer April 2, 2004.

LOCK036

Locklear, Mark. “House panel to debate Lumbee bill.” Robesonian 29 March 2004.

LOWR008

Lowry, Welton. “Welton Lowry.” The Robesonian (Lumberton, NC). March 16, 2004

OXEN008

Oxendine, David Bryan. "The effects of social exclusion threat and justifications on perceived fairness of an ethnic validation procedure: Implications for Lumbee federal recognition." Dissertation. North Carolina State U, 2004.

WILK006

Wilkins, David. “Wilkins: Red, black, and bruised.” Indian country today October 21, 2003.

LOCK032

Locklear, Mark. “Recognition hearing set for Sept. 17.” Robesonian Friday, September 5, 2003.

LOCK032

Locklear, Mark. “Recognition hearing set for Sept. 17.” Robesonian Friday, September 5, 2003.

JENK027

Jenkins, Venita. “Lumbees set date with Senate panel.” Fayetteville Observer September 4, 2003.

LOCK028

Locklear, Mark. "Panel wants to get word out on gaming process." Robesonian 7 March 2003.

TRAP001

Trapani, William. “Re/cognizing Native American sovereignty in an age of manifest manners.” Journal of Law in Society 3 (Winter 2002): 1-29. 10,529 words

FOX0008

Fox, Geoff. “Blue promises support for Lumbee recognition.” Robesonian 6 May 2002.

SCHO001

Schogol, Jeff. “Lumbees hope recognition easier with Helms's retirement.” Fayetteville Observer 20 April 2002.

WILK003

Wilkins, David. Racial identity and the federal recognition process: a case study of the Lumbee Indians. Paper presented at: “ ‘Eating out of the same pot’: relating Black and Indian (hi)stories.” Hanover, NH: Dartmouth College, April 2002. 14 pages.

LOCK013

Locklear, Brooke. “The Lumbee struggle.” North Carolina Political Review November-December, 2001.

STIL001

Stilling, Glenn Ellen Starr. "The Lumbee struggle for federal recognition: an annotated bibliography." North Carolina Political Review November-December 2001.

JACO001

Jacobs, Darlene. “Establishment of ethics and economic committees and constitution tops Lumbee Tribal Council meeting.” Carolina Indian Voice Thursday 29 March 2001: 1

BROW004

Brownell, Margo S. “Note: Who is an Indian? Searching for an answer to the question at the core of federal Indian law.” University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform 34 (Fall 2000/Winter 2001): 275- . 25,123 words.

HUNT004

Hunt, Cynthia L. “Looking back while walking forward” (column). Carolina Indian Voice 7 September 2000: Page 5.

HUNT012

Hunt, Cynthia L. “Looking back while walking forward (column).” Carolina Indian Voice 29 June 2000: 4.

HUNT007

Hunt, Cynthia L. “Joseph J. Brooks: a man of distinction.” Carolina Indian Voice 29 June 2000: 1, 4.

HUNT008

Hunt, Cynthia L. “Looking back while walking forward” (column). Carolina Indian Voice 25 May 2000: 2.

LOCK008

“Testimony of Arlinda Locklear on S. 611, before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, on behalf of the Miami Nation of Indiana, May 24, 2000.”   6,174 words.

HUNT011

Hunt, Cynthia L. “Looking back while walking forward (column): Maynor v. Morton, Part III.” Carolina Indian Voice 27 April 2000: 5.

HUNT013

Hunt, Cynthia L. “Maynor vs. Morton, Part II.” (Looking back while walking forward.) Carolina Indian Voice Thursday, 20 April 2000: 10.

HUNT002

Hunt, Cynthia L. “Looking back while walking forward (column): Maynor v. Morton.” Carolina Indian Voice 13 April 2000: 7.

LURI001

Lurie, Nancy Oestreich. “Sol tax and tribal sovereignty.” Human Organization 58.1 (Spring 1999): 108- .

HUNT001

Hunt, Cynthia L. “Federal Recognition Committee formation off to a successful beginning.” Carolina Indian Voice 18 March 1999: 1.

FEDE001

“Federal Recognition Committee to be formed.” Carolina Indian Voice 28 January 1999: 1.

KNIC018

Knick, Stanley. “Along the Robeson Trail (column).” Carolina Indian Voice 10 December 1998:3.

KNIC017

Knick, Stanley. “Along the Robeson Trail (column).” Carolina Indian Voice 3 December 1998:3.

PADG001

Padget, Cindy D. “The Lost Indians of the Lost Colony: a critical legal study of the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.”American Indian Law Review 21.2 (1997): 391-423.

BIAN001

Biank, Tanya S. “Lumbee Tribal Council oppose bill introduced by Rose.” Fayetteville Observer-Times 8 August 1996.

MILB001

Milbank, Dana. “What's in a name? For the Lumbees, pride and money - the North Carolina Indians are exploring their roots and seeking federal standing.” Wall Street Journal 13 November 1995: A1.

MCMI001

McMillan, Alex Frew. “Lost cause.” Business/North Carolina 15.10 (October 1, 1995): 40-48.

MCCU001

McCulloch, Anne Merline, and David E. Wilkins. “'Constructing' nations within states: the Quest for federal recognition by the Catawba and Lumbee tribes.” American Indian Quarterly 19.3 (Summer 1995): 361-88.  Key source.

LOCK005

United States. Congress. Senate. “Testimony of Arlinda Locklear on S.479 before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.” 23 May 1995. 7626 words.

MONK001

Monk, John. “U.S. bill would give Lumbees the right to sponsor gambling.” Charlotte Observer 9 June 1994: 1A.

HOUG001

Houghton, Richard H., III. “The Lumbee: 'not a tribe.'” The Nation 257.21 (20 December 1993): 750.

BROW003

Brown, Cynthia. [Reply to letter from Richard H. Houghton III]  Nation 257 no. 21 (20 December 1993): 750.

LUMB002

103rd Cong. Lumbee Recognition Act. Report together with dissenting views to accompany H.R. 334. House Report no. 130-290. House Committee on Natural Resources. Dated 14 October 1993. Approximately 194 pages.

BROW002

Brown, Cynthia. “The vanished Native Americans: unrecognized tribes.” Nation 257:11 (1 October 1993): 384, 386-388, 391. 2,647 words.

SAVI001

Savilla, Elmer M. “A view from the East: Who should cast stones at the Lumbee Nation?” Indian Country today (Lakota Times) 8.10 (September 6, 1988): 5.

QUIN001

Quinn, William W., Jr. “Southeastern Indians: the quest for federal acknowledgment and a new legal status.” From big game to bingo: native peoples of the Southeastern United States: a retrospective occasioned by the sesquicentennial of the great removal. Proceedings of a conference conducted at the Florida State University during March 5-7, 1987. Ed. J. Anthony Paredes and J. Leitch Wright, Jr. Pages 255-274.

828

Evans, W. McKee. “The North Carolina Lumbees: From Assimilation to Revitalization.” Southeastern Indians Since the Removal Era. Ed. Walter L. Williams. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1979. Pp. 49-71.