Language: Lumbee English

Key Sources

Record Number Citation
WOLF010

Wolfram, Walt, Clare Dannenberg, Stanley Knick, and Linda Oxendine. Fine in the world: Lumbee language in time and place. Pembroke, NC: Museum of the Native American Resource Center, UNC-Pembroke, 2002. 92 pages. Key source

WOLF008

Wolfram, Walt. “From the brickhouse to the swamp.” American Language Review July/August 2001: 34-38. Key source

DANN003

Dannenberg, Clare Jacobs. “Moving toward a diachronic and synchronic definition of Lumbee English.” Thesis. North Carolina State University, 1996. 105 pages. Key source

Sources

Record Number Citation
HANN002

Hannel, Eric. "Lumbee: Reinterpreting a native american identity through peoplehood." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanties and Social Sciences, Vol 75(12-A)(E), 2015.

WOLF013

Wolfram, Walt, and Jeffrey L. Reaser. "9. Lumbee English: Tar Heel American Indian Dialect." In:Talkin’ Tar Heel: How our voices tell the story of North Carolina. Chapel Hill: UNC P, 2014. Pp. 216-242.

SCOT001

Scott, Chris, and Kathleen Brown. "Rising above my raisin'? Using heuristic inquiry to explore the effects of Lumbee dialect on ethnic identity development." American Indian Quarterly 32.4 (2008): 485-521.

SCOT002

Scott, Christopher E. "An investigation of the impact of speaking the Lumbee dialect on the academic achievement and identity development of Native American college students." Dissertation. U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2008.

COGS001

Coggshall, Elizabeth L. “The prosodic rhythm of two varieties of Native American English.” NWAV 36. 2008.

CLAR001

Clarke, James F. "Walking in balance: Looking back while moving forward. Rediscovering the Lumbee language and moving into the 21st century." Thesis (MA, Liberal studies) Winston Salem, NC: Wake Forest University, 2007. 57p.

COGS002

Coggshall, Elizabeth Learn. “Differential Vowel Accommodation among Two Native American Groups.” M. A. North Carolina State U, 2006.

SCHI005

Schilling-Estes, Natalie. “Constructing ethnicity in interaction.” Journal of sociolinguistics 8.2 (May 2004): 163-195. 6 tables, 22 extracts.

SCHI004

Schilling-Estes, Natalie. “On the nature of isolated and post-isolated dialects: Innovation, variation and differentiation.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 6.1 (2002): 64-85.

DANN007

Dannenberg, Clare J. Sociolinguistic constructs of ethnic identity: the syntactic delineation of an American Indian English. (Publications of the American Dialect Society, no. 87) N.p.: Duke UP, 2002. 106 pages. Annotation forthcoming.

TORB002

Torbert, Benjamin. “Tracing Native American language history through consonant cluster reduction: the case of Lumbee English.” American Speech 76.4 (Winter 2001): 361-387. 35 references.

KERN002

Kerns, Schnele, and Sheila J. Bridges. A dialectal application of Minspeak: the case of a 10-year-old Lumbee Indian male with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome. In: Augmentative & Alternative Communication (discipline-wide sessions). ASHA Leader 6.15 (August 29, 2001): 17 (13 pages).

 

HERM003

Herman, David. “Story logic in conversational and literary narratives.” Narrative 9.2 (2001): 130-37.

KERN003

Kerns, Ursulla H. "A comparison of lexical items in Lumbee Vernacular English from the Pembroke and Prospect communities." Thesis. Durham, NC: North Carolina Central U, 2001. 59 pages.

HERM002

Herman, David. “Spatial reference in narrative domains.” Text 21.4 (2001): 515-41.

FORD002

Forde, Kathy Roberts. “On the swamps: the politics of language, landscape and Lumbee identity.” The Independent Weekly (Durham, NC) December 6, 2000.

WOLF007

Wolfram, Walt, Becky Childs, and Benjamin Torbert. “Tracing language history through consonant cluster reduction: comparative evidence from isolated dialects.” Southern Journal of Linguistics 24.1 (Spring 2000): 16-40.

INDI002

Indian by birth: the Lumbee dialect. Produced by Walt Wolfram. Narrated by Linda Oxendine. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Language and Life Project, North Carolina State University; Pembroke, NC: Museum of the Native American Resource Center, and Department of American Indian Studies, University of North Carolina at Pembroke, 2000.

SCHI002

Schilling-Estes, Natalie. “Redrawing ethnic dividing lines through linguistic creativity.” American Speech 75.4 (2000): 357-359.

SCHI003

Schilling-Estes, Natalie. “Investigating intra-ethnic differentiation: /ay/ in Lumbee Native American English.” Language Variation and Change 12 (2000): 141-174.  

HAMM002

Hammonds, Renee. “People's perceptions of Lumbee Vernacular English.” Thesis. Durham, NC: North Carolina Central U, 2000. 43 pages

HERM004

Herman, David. “Pragmatic constraints on narrative processing: Actants and anaphora resolution in a corpus of North Carolina ghost stories.” Journal of pragmatics 32 (2000): 959-1001.

TORB001

Torbert, Benjamin Charles. “Native American language history traced through consonant cluster reduction: the case of Lumbee English.”  Thesis.  Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, 2000. 61 pages.

LOCK058

Locklear, Tammie Sue. "Emergent literacy skills of Native American Lumbee children of Robeson County, North Carolina." North Carolina Central U, 2000.

WOLF011

Wolfram, Walt. “On the construction of vernacular dialect norms.” CLS 36: The panels. The proceedings from the panels of the Chicago Linguistic Society’s thirty-sixth meeting. Volume 36-2. Ed. Arika Okrent and John P. Boyle. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, 2000. Pages 335-358.

DANN005

Dannenberg, Clare J. “Grammatical and phonological manifestations of null copula in a tri-ethnic contact situation.” Journal of English Linguistics 27.1 (December 1999): 356-370.

MONT002

Montgomery, Michael, and Margaret Mishoe. “'He bes took up with a Yankee girl and moved up there to New York': the verb bes in the Carolinas and its history.” American Speech 74.3 (Fall, 1999): 240-281.

WOLF005

Wolfram, Walt, and Jason Sellers. “Ethnoliguistic marking of past be in Lumbee Vernacular English.” Journal of English Linguistics 27.2 (June, 1999): 94-114.

BOUG002
Boughman, Arvis. “The Lumbee language is back!” Carolina Indian Voice 
1 April 1999:2.
BOUG001

Boughman, Arvis. “The Lumbee language is coming back?” Carolina Indian Voice 25 March 1999:2.

DANN006

Dannenberg, Clare J. “Sociolinguistic constructs of ethnic identity: the syntactic delineation of Lumbee English.” Diss. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1999. 167 pages.

WOLF006

Wolfram, Walt, and Clare Dannenberg.  “Dialect identity in a tri-ethnic context: the case of Lumbee American Indian English.”   English World-Wide 20.2 (1999): 179-216.

JOYC001

Joyce, Allison Harrington. "Language assessment of Lumbee Indian children in North Carolina." North Carolina Central U, 1999.

HERM001

Herman, David. “Toward a socionarratology: new ways of analyzing natural-language narratives.” In: Narratologies: new perspectives on narrative analysis. Ed. David Herman. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1999. Pages 218-246.

ALLS002

Allsbrook, Dana G. “Idiomatic structures in the Lumbee dialect.” North Carolina Central U, 1999.

TALK001

“Talk of the triangle: listening to the Lumbee.” Spectator Online 19 December 1998.

DANN004

Dannenberg, Clare, and Walt Wolfram. “Ethnic identity and grammatical restructuring: be(s) in Lumbee English.” American Speech 73.2 (Summer 1998): 139-159.

TOWA001

“Towards the understanding of ethnic distinction and r-lessness in multi-ethnic southern communities: a study of Lumbee Indian Vernacular English.” Draft. 17 pages.

WOLF004

Wolfram, Walt. American English: dialects and variation. Malden, M.A.: Blackwell Publishers, 1998. Pp. 182-83.

DELO002

Deloria, Vine, Jr. “Introduction.” Speaking of Indians. By Ella Deloria. Bison Books Edition. Lincoln: Nebraska UP, 1998. Pages xv-xvii.

HATC001

Hatch, Leah Joy. “An analysis of irregular verb usage in Lumbee English.” Project (Master of Education). North Carolina Central U, 1998. 36 pages.

SCHI001

Schilling-Estes, Natalie. “Intra-ethnic differentiation and cross-ethnic English.” Paper presented at NWAVE 26 Conference, October 1997. 32 pages.

DANN001

Dannenberg, Clare J., and Walt Wolfram. “The roots of Lumbee language.” Revised draft. Unpublished report. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Language and Life Project, North Carolina State U, August 1997. 38 pages. 40 references.

WOLF003

Wolfram, Walt, and Jason Sellers. “Alternative regularization patterning and ethnic marking in a tri-ethnic southern community.” Paper presented at the Southeastern Conference on Linguistics 56, Charlotte, N.C., April 1997. 16 pages.

JACK001

Jackson, Stacie Jane. “A comparative profile of vernacular phonology: Lumbee Vernacular English and African-American Vernacular English in Robeson County.” Thesis.  North Carolina Central University, 1997.

DANN002

Dannenberg, Clare J. “Grammatical and phonological manifestations of null copula in a tri-ethnic contact situation.” Paper presented at 1997 NWAVE session on Grammatical Structures in AAVE.

LOCK001

Locklear, Hayes A.; Natalie Schilling-Estes, Walt Wolfram, and Clare J. Dannenberg. A dialect dictionary of Lumbee English. Raleigh, NC; The North Carolina Language and Life Project, North Carolina State U, June 1996. 18 pages.

WOLF001

Wolfram, Walt. “Delineation and description in dialectology: the case of perfective I'm in Lumbee English.” American Speech 71.1 (Spring 1996): 5-26.

MILL002

Miller, Jason Paul. “Mixed sociological alignment and ethnic identity: r-lessness in a Native American community.” Thesis. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, 1996. 84 pages.

WOLF002

Wolfram, Walt, Natalie Schilling-Estes, Roscoe Johnson, James Peterson, and Yancey R. Hall.  “Dialect mixing and ethnic identity in Lumbee English.” SECOL 50. Memphis, T.N.. April 1994.

345

Barton, Lew.  “List of Common Lumbee Terms.”  Unpublished typescript.  N.d.  9 p.

367

Payne, Alton W.  “‘A Fool’s Errand’: The Discovery of a Proto-Lumbee Language.  The True Origin of the Lumbee Indians.”  Unpublished typescript.  Sept. 1989.  34 p.

355

Brewer, Jeutonne, and Robert W. Reising.  “Tokens in the Pocosin: Lumbee English in North Carolina.”  Essays in Native American English. San Antonio: Trinity U, 1982.  Also in American Speech 57.2 (1982): 108-20.

347

Snow, Claude H.  “An Annotated Transcription of Eight Lumbee Indian Sermons in Upper Robeson County, North Carolina.”  Thesis.  U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1978.

POUN001

Pound, Louise. “Miscellany.” American Speech 21.3 (October 1946): 227-238.