Laws (state and federal) and court cases

Sources

Record Number Citation
ROBE024

"ACP sparks lawsuit [Staff Report]." Robesonian [Lumberton, NC]. October 7, 2017.

ROBE018

"Judicial map plan wouldn’t benefit Robeson County [Editorial]." The Robesonian [Lumberton, NC]. October 3, 2017.

SHIL066

Shiles, Bob. "Tribal Council wants Lumber River renamed to honor Lumbee." Robesonian [Lumberton, NC] September 21, 2017.

SHIL077

Shiles, Bob. "Robeson Democrats ordered to redo local election." Red Springs Citizen [Red Springs, NC]. July 4, 2017.

1348

73rd Cong. 2nd Session. Siouan Indians of Lumber River. H.Rept. no. 1752 (to accompany H.R. 5365). Dated 23 May 1934. Serial Set. Serial no. 22245.

859

U.S. Cong. House. Comm. on the Judiciary. Subcomm. on Civil and Constitutional Rights. Anti-Indian Violence. Hearings ... May 4 and 18, 1988. 100th Cong., 2nd Sess. Washington: GPO, 1989. Y4.J89/1: 100/119. Serial Set, Serial no. 119. Pp. 20-44, 432-40.

804

“First Indian Lawyer in N.C. Honored by Saddletree Jaycees.” Robesonian [Lumberton, NC] 3 Sept. 1972: 2A.

JUBA001

Juback, Bob. "DOJ to Monitor Robeson County Polls Tomorrow." WBTV News 13 [Myrtle Beach, SC]. November 7, 2016.

OPIN001

Opinion. “Larger than life, Britt make a mark.” The Robesonian (Lumberton, NC). May 4, 2016.

LEE0002

Lee, Tanya H. "$380 Million More to Benefit Farmers, Ranchers in Keepseagle Compromise." Indian Country. May 2, 2016.

SAUN001

Saunders, Barry. “An end to Britt’s brand of justice.” The News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). April 12, 2016

WILL006

Willets, Sarah. “’Deadliest DA’ remembered for substance, style.” The Robesonian (Lumberton, NC). April 7, 2016

WILL006

Willets, Sarah. “’Deadliest DA’ remembered for substance, style.” The Robesonian (Lumberton, NC). April 7, 2016

1317

57th Cong. 1st Session. H. R. 186. “A Bill to Provide for the Eduction and Support of the Children of the Croatan or Hatteras Indians, in the Southeastern Part of North Carolina.” Introd. by Bellamy; sent to the Committee on Indian Affairs.

1302

1809 Laws of North Carolina Ch. 32, “An Act to Facilitate and Open the Navigation of Lumber River, from M’Farland’s Turnpike to the South-Carolina Line.”

1303

1831-1832 Laws of North Carolina Ch. 13, “An Act to Provide for the Collection of Fines Imposed upon Free Negroes or Free Persons of Colour.”

SHIL003

Shiles, Bob. “Ordinance gives housing priority to tribal Elders.” Robesonian [Lumberton, NC] September 19, 2014.

UNCP006

“UNCP to Gain Designation.” Robesonian July 5, 2005.

LUMB013

To provide for the acknowledgment of the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, and for other purposes. United States. Senate. 109th Congress. 1st session. S. 660. March 17, 2005.

BART014

Barton, Bruce. " 'Double voting' in Robeson County: A reminder of an unequal past." Tar Heel Junior Historian Fall 2004.

108-213

Providing for the acknowledgment of the Lumbee Indian tribe of North Carolina, and for other purposes. Report, Senate Comm. on Indian Affairs. S. Rept. 108-213. 11 p. Dated November 25, 2003. Y1.1/5: 108-213.

TOPR002

108th Congress. 1st Session. “H.R. 1408. To provide for the consideration of a petition for federal recognition of the Lumbee Indians of Robeson and adjoining counties, and for other purposes.” Introduced in the House of Representatives of the United States by Charles H. Taylor (R-NC) on March 20, 2003.

TOPR003

108th Congress. 1st Session. “H.R. 898. To provide for the recognition of the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, and for other purposes.” Introduced in the House of Representatives of the United States by Mike McIntyre (D-NC) on February 25, 2003.

TOPR001

108th Congress. 1st Session. “S. 420. To provide for the acknowledgement of the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, and for other purposes.” Introduced in the Senate of the United States by Elizabeth Dole (R-NC) on February 14, 2003.

1389

103rd Cong. 1st Session. H.R. 334. “To Provide for the Recognition of the Lumbee Tribe of Cheraw Indians of North Carolina, and for Other Purposes.” Introd. by Rose, 5 Jan. 1993.

1388

102nd Cong. 1st Session. Providing for the Recognition of the Lumbee Tribe of Cheraw Indians of North Carolina, and for Other Purposes. Report, Senate Select Comm. on Indian Affairs. Report no. 102-251. 26 p. Dated 26 Nov. 1991. Y1.1/5: 102-251

1387

102nd Cong. 1st Session. Providing for the Recognition of the Lumbee Tribe of Cheraw Indians of North Carolina, and for Other Purposes. Report, House Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs. Report no. 102-215. 29 p. Dated 24 Sept. 1991. Y1.1/8: 102/215

1386

102nd Cong. 1st Session. Provide for the Recognition of the Lumbee Tribe of Cheraw Indians of North Carolina. Joint Hearing, House Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs and Senate Select Comm. on Indian Affairs, on H.R. 1426 and S. 1036. Dated 1 Aug. 1991. Serial no. 102-JH 1. 274 p. Y4.In8/14: 102-JH 1. Washington: GPO, 1993.

1385

102nd Cong. 1st Session. H.R. 1426. “To Provide for the Recognition of the Lumbee Tribe of Cheraw Indians of North Carolina, and for Other Purposes.” Introd. by Rose, 13 March 1991.

1384

101st Cong. 2nd Session. Providing Federal Recognition for the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina. Report, House Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs. Report no. 101-685. 12 p. Dated 10 Sept. 1990. Y1.1/8: 101-685.

870

Rhodes, Barbara. “Horace Locklear’s Motions Hearing Scheduled During Superior Court.” Robesonian 28 Jan. 1990: 1.

1383

101st Cong. 1st Session. To Provide Federal Recognition for the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina. Hearing, House Comm. on Interior and Insular Affairs [on H.R. 2335]. Serial no. 101-57. 235 p. Dated 26 Sept. 1989. Y4.In8/14: 101-57. Washington: GPO, 1992.

1382

101st Cong. 1st Session. H.R. 2335. “A Bill to Provide Federal Recognition for the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina.” Introd. by Rose, 11 May 1989.

1381

100th Cong. 2nd Session. Providing for Federal Recognition for the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina. Report, Senate Select Comm. on Indian Affairs. S.Rept. 100-579. 37 p. Dated 30 Sept. 1988. Y1.1/5: 100-579.

1380

100th Cong. 2nd Session. Federal Recognition of the Lumbee Indian Tribe of North Carolina. Hearing, Senate Select Comm. on Indian Affairs. S.Hrg. 100-881. Dated 12 Aug. 1988. 160p. Y4.In2/11: S.hrg.100-881.

1379

100th Cong. 1st Session. S. 2672. “A Bill to Provide Federal Recognition for the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina.” Introd. by Sanford, 29 July 1988.

846

Locklear, Barbara Brayboy-. “King Joe’s Court.” Aardvark 88. Ed. Anne Russell. Pembroke: Journalism Program, Pembroke State University, 1988? Pp. 43-45. [IERC]

1378

1987 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 605, “An Act to Merge All of the School Administrative Units in Robeson County, Subject to a Referendum.” 13 July 1987.

836

Geiger, Maurice D., and Kathryn Fahnestock. “Confidential Memorandum to Chief Justice Joseph Branch. Subject: Robeson County Court System.” North Conway, NH: Fund for Rural Justice, 15 Dec. 1983. 12p.

1377

1981 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 1294, “An Act to Appropriate Funds to the Board of Governors of the University of North Carolina to Provide Non-Service Scholarships for Resident N.C. Indians.” 23 June 1982.

1376

“Compulsory Attendance: No Exemption for American Indians/Misunderstanding of Law No Defense. State v. Chavis, 45 N.C.App. 438, 263 S.E.2d 356 (1980).” School Law Bulletin [U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Inst. of Government] 12.3 (July 1981): 20.

833

“Lumbee Suit Seeks ... Hiring Goals.” News and Observer [Raleigh, NC] 25 Nov. 1980: 19.

1375

State v. Chavis, 45 N.C.App 438, 263 S.E.2d 356 (4 March 1980). Petition for writ of certiorari denied, 449 U.S. 1035, 66 L.Ed.2d 496, 101 S.Ct. 610 (8 Dec. 1980).

1374

“In the Matter of the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.” 58 Comp. Gen. 699. (Decisions of the U.S. Comptroller General, no. B-185659) 1 Aug. 1979. 10 p. GA1.5:58

827

Schmalleger, Frank, and Joe Freeman Britt. “The Death Penalty: A Case Study of ‘Britt’s Blitz’ in Robeson County.” Carolina Politics [Asheville, NC: Dept. of Political Science, University of North Carolina at Asheville] 1.1 (Oct. 1978): [5]-15.

825

Swofford, Stan. “Are Highway Patrolmen Mistreating Lumbee Indians?” Greensboro Daily News [Greensboro, NC] 25 June 1978: A1.

1373

1975 Session Laws of North Carolina ch. 381, “An Act to Provide for the Nomination and Election of the Board of Education of Robeson County.” 26 May 1975.

1372

Lawrence Maynor, Appellant, v. Rogers C. B. Morton, Secretary, Dept. of the Interior, 510 F.2d 1254 (4 April 1975). Rpt. in S.Hrg. 100-881 (entry 1380).

1371

Janie Maynor Locklear et al. v. N.C. State Board of Elections, et al., on Appeal from the U.S. District Court for Eastern District of North Carolina, Fayetteville Division. Brief for Appellants. By Barry Nakell and Adam Stein, attorneys for appellants. [1975?] 40p. [IERC]

1369

93rd Cong. 2nd Session. Amending the Act Relating to the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina. H.Rpt. no. 1394. 10 p. Dated 1 Oct. 1974. Serial Set, Serial no. 13061-9. Rpt. in S.Hrg. 100-881 (entry 1380).

1370

Janie Maynor Locklear v. N.C. State Board of Elections, 379 F.Supp. 2 (20 June 1974). Reversed, 514 F.2d 1152 (23 April 1975). Affirmed, 529 F.2d 515 (26 Sept. 1975).

1368

93rd Cong. 2nd Session. H.R. 12216. “A Bill to Amend the Act Relating to the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.” Introd. by Rose, 22 Jan. 1974.

807

Briggs, Olin. “Further Hearings with Subpoena Powers Eyed as Civil Rights Advisory Panel Ends Sessions Here.” Robesonian [Lumberton, NC] 1 Oct. 1972: 1

1367

92nd Cong. 2nd Session. S. 2763. “A Bill to Prohibit Discrimination Against the Lumbee Indians of N.C.” Introd. by Jordan, 28 Oct. 1971. [Not seen.]

1366

1969 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 388, “An Act to Establish Pembroke College as a Regional University with the Designation of ‘Pembroke State University’.” 1 July 1969.

1365

1961 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 97, “An Act Relating to Elections in the Town of Pembroke in Robeson County.” 24 March 1961.

1364

State of North Carolina v. James Cole, James Garland Martin and Others to the State Unknown. 249 N.C. 733, 107 S.E.2d 732 (25 March 1959).

1363

84th Cong. 2nd Session. P.L. 84-570. “An Act Relating to the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.” 70 Stat. 254. Dated 7 June 1956. Rpt. in U. S. Code Congressional and Administrative News, 84th Cong., 2nd Session (1956), vol. 1, Laws; Dial and Eliades (entry 54), Appendix B.

1362

84th Cong. 2nd Session. Relating to the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina. S.Rept. no. 2012. Dated 16 May 1956. Serial Set, Serial no. 11888, vol. 3, Senate Reports. Rpt. in U.S. Code Congressional and Administrative News, 84th Cong., 2nd Session, vol. 2, pp. 2715-16.

1361

84th Cong. 2nd Session. Relating to the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina. H.Rpt. no. 1654. 2 p. Dated 18 Jan. 1956. Serial Set, Serial no. 11897, House Reports, vol. 1.

1360

84th Cong. 1st Session. H.R. 4656. “A Bill Relating to the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.” Introd. by Carlyle, 7 March 1955.

1359

1953 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 874, “An Act Relating to the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.” 20 April 1953.

1358

1953 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 487, “An Act to Amend Article 5 of ch. 116 of the General Statutes Relating to the Admission of Students to Pembroke State College.” 26 March 1953.

1357

1949 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 58, “An Act to Change the Name of the Pembroke State College for Indians.” 11 Feb. 1949.

1356

1945 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 817, “An Act Relating to the Cherokee Indians of Robeson County and Pembroke State College for Indians Located at Pembroke, North Carolina.” 19 March 1945.

1355

1945 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 410, “An Act to Amend the Charter of the Town of Pembroke.” 7 March 1945.

1354

1941 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 370, “An Act to Provide Better Educational Advantages for Members of the Indian Race in Eastern North Carolina Not Otherwise Provided For.” 15 March 1941.

1352

1941 North Carolina Public-Local Laws ch. 422, “An Act to Provide Separate Schools for Indians in Averasboro and Duke Townships, Harnett County.” 15 March 1941.

1353

1941 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 323, “An Act to Change the Name of the Cherokee Indian Normal School of Robeson County, and for Other Purposes.” 15 March 1941.

1351

1939 North Carolina Public-Local Laws ch. 256, “An Act to Create and Establish the Fairmont Administrative Unit and Providing for the Administration and Control Thereof.” 20 March 1939.

1350

1935 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 316, “An Act to Amend Ch. 490, Public Laws of 1933, Relating to Delinquent Children of the Indian Race.” 7 May 1935.

1347

73rd Cong. 2nd Session. Siouan Indians of Lumber River. S.Rept. no. 204 (to accompany S. 1632). Dated 23 Jan. 1934. Serial Set, serial no. 9769, v. 1.

1349

1933 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 490, “An Act to Provide for Admission into the Stonewall Jackson Training School and Samarcand Manor of Delinquent Boys and Girls of the Cherokee Indian Race, of Robeson County.” 13 May 1933.

1346

73rd Cong. 1st Session. H.R. 5365. “A Bill Providing for the Recognition and Enrollment as Cheraw Indians of Certain Indians in the State of North Carolina.” Introd. by Clark, 1 May 1933.

1345

72nd Cong. 1st Session. S. 4595. “A Bill Providing for the Recognition and Enrollment as Cherokee Indians of Certain Indians in the State of North Carolina.” Introd. by Bailey, 9 May 1932.

1344

1931 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 275, “An Act to Amend Ch. 238, Public Laws of 1929, Relating to Appointment of Trustees for Cherokee Indian Normal School ….” 9 April 1931.

1343

1931 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 276, “An Act to Amend Ch. 61, Public Laws 1921, ... Relating to the Supervision of the Cherokee Indian State Normal School, by the State Board of Education.” 9 April 1931.

1342

1931 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 141, “An Act to Amend Sec. 5,445 of the Consolidated Statutes so as to Provide Keeping Separate Records for the Public Schools for the Cherokee Indians of Robeson County.” 20 Mar. 1931.

1341

1929 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 195, “An Act to Amend Ch. 126, Public-Local Laws 1921 ... and Prescribe the Racial Qualifications of Those Seeking Admission into Cherokee Indian Normal School … and in the Common Schools of Robeson County for the Indian Race.” 16 March 1929.

1340

1927 North Carolina Public-Local Laws ch. 213, “An Act to Provide Separate Schools for the Cherokee Indians in Columbus County.” 26 Feb. 1927.

1339

68th Cong. 1st Session. H.R. 8083. “A Bill to Designate the Croatan Indians of Robeson and Adjoining Counties in North Carolina as Cherokee Indians.” Introd. by Lyon, 20 March 1924.

1338

1921 North Carolina Public-Local Laws ch. 426, “An Act for the Protection of the Public Schools of Robeson County.” 5 March 1921. Partial reprint in Eliades and Oxendine (entry 264), Appendix D.

1337

1919 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 211, “An Act to Amend Section 4545, Revisal of 1905, Relative to the Treatment of Croatan Indians in the Insane Hospital.” 10 March 1919.

1336

1917 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 163, “An Act to Control ... Distribution of Funds to the Cherokee Normal School of Robeson County.” 5 March 1917.

1335

1917 North Carolina Public-Local Laws ch. 509, “An Act to Provide for Separate Schools for the Croatan Indians of Sampson County.” 2 March 1917.

1334

1917 North Carolina Private Laws ch. 63, “An Act to Provide for the Appointment of a Mayor and Four Commissioners for the Town of Pembroke in Robeson County.” 9 Jan. 1917.

1333

64th Cong. 1st Session. H. R. 11332. “A Bill to Acquire a Site and Erect Buildings for a School for the Indians of Robeson County, N.C., and for Other Purposes.” Introd. by Godwin. [Not seen.]

1332

Goins et al. v. Board of Trustees of Indian Normal Training School at Pembroke, 169 NC 736, 86 SE 629 (27 Oct. 1915).

1331

63rd Cong. 2nd Session. S.Res. 410. “Resolution Directing the Secretary of the Interior to Cause an Investigation to be Made as to the Condition and Tribal Rights of Certain Indians in North Carolina, and to Make a Report Thereon to Congress.” Introd. by Simmons, 30 June 1914.

1330

63rd Cong. 1st Session. S. 3217. “A Bill to Acquire a Site and Erect Buildings for a School for the Indians of Robeson County, N.C., and for Other Purposes.” Introd. by Simmons; sent to the Committee on Indian Affairs. [Not seen.]

1329

63rd Cong. 1st Session. S. 2717. “A Bill to Change the Name of the Indians Residing in Robeson and Adjoining Counties, in the State of North Carolina, Who Have Heretofore Been Known as ‘Croatan Indians’ or ‘Indians of North Carolina,’ to the Name ‘Cherokee Indians of Robeson County’.” Introd. by Simmons; sent to the Committee on Indian Affairs. [Not seen.]

1328

1913 Public Laws of North Carolina ch. 199, “An Act to Provide for the Maintenance and Support of the Indian Normal School of Robeson County.” 12 March 1913. Rpt. in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit L14.

1327

1913 Public Laws of North Carolina ch. 123, “An Act to Restore to the Indians Residing in Robeson and Adjoining Counties Their Rightful and Ancient Name.” 11 March 1913. Rpt. in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit L13 and Dial and Eliades (entry 54), Appendix B.

1326

62nd Cong. 2nd Session. School for Indians of Robeson County: Hearings Before the [House] Committee on Indian Affairs on S. 3258 to Acquire a Site and Erect Buildings for a School for the Indians of Robeson County, N.C. and for Other Purposes. Dated 14 Feb. 1913. 27 p. [PSU-MLL]

1325

62nd Cong. 2nd Session. Indians in Robeson County, N.C. Hearing Before the Committee on Indian Affairs, U.S. Senate, ... on S. 3258, a Bill to Acquire a Site and Erect Buildings for a School for the Indians of Robeson County, N.C., and for Other Purposes. Dated 4 April 1912. 7 p.

1324

Pierce, Charles F. [Visit Among the Croatan Indians, Living in the Vicinity of Pembroke, North Carolina.] Report, in the Field at Pipestone, Minn., to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, U.S. Indian Service, Dept. of the Interior, 2 Mar. 1912. [National Archives and Records Admin., Washington, D.C. File 23202-1912-123 General Services.] [IERC] [Lumbee Petition, Exhibit A30] Summarized in entry 62.

1323

62nd Cong. 1st Session. S. 3258. “A Bill to Acquire a Site and Erect Buildings for a School for the Indians of Robeson County … and for Other Purposes.” Introd. by Simmons, 16 Aug. 1911. Rpt. in entry 1326.

1322

1911 Public Laws of North Carolina ch. 215, “An Act the Change the Name of the Indians in Robeson County and to Provide for Said Indians Separate Apartments in the State Hospital.” 8 March 1911. Rpt. in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit L12 and Dial and Eliades (entry 54), Appendix B.

1321

1911 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 168, “An Act to Empower the Trustees of the Indian Normal School of Robeson County to Transfer Title to Property of Said School by Deed to State Board of Education, and to Provide for the Appointment of Trustees for Said School.” 8 March 1911. Rpt. in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit L11 and Dial and Eliades (entry 54), Appendix B.

1320

61st Cong. 2nd Session. H.R. 19036. “A Bill to Change the Name of the Croatan Indians of the State of N.C. to their Original Name, Cherokee.” Introd. by Godwin, 24 Jan. 1910. Rpt. in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit M.

1319

1909 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 720, “An Act to Provide Separate Schools for the Indian Race in Scotland County.” 6 March 1909.

1318

1905 North Carolina Private Laws ch. 49, “An Act to Extend and Amend Ch. 171, Private Laws of 1895 ...” 8 Feb. 1905.

1315

56th Cong. 1st Session. H.R. 4009. “A Bill to Provide for the Education of the Children of the Croatan or Hatteras Indians, in the Southeastern Part of North Carolina.” Introd. by Bellamy, 13 Dec. 1899.

1314

1897 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 536, “An Act in Relation to the Croatan Normal School in Robeson County.” 9 Mar. 1897.

1313

1895 North Carolina Private Laws ch. 171, “An Act to Incorporate the Town of Pembroke, in the County of Robeson.” 8 March 1895.

1312

1893 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 515, “An Act to Amend Ch. 60, Sec. 3, of the Laws of 1889.” 6 March 1893.

1311

McMillan v. School Committee, 107 N.C. 609, 12 S.E. 330 (8 Dec. 1890)

1310

1889 Laws of North Carolina ch. 458, “An Act to Amend Chapter Fifty-One, Acts of One Thousand Eight Hundred and Eighty-Five, In Reference to the Schools of Croatan Indians in Richmond County.” 11 March 1889. Rpt. in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit L8.

1309

1889 Laws of North Carolina ch. 60, “An Act to Amend the Laws of 1885 and 1887 So As to Provide Additional Educational Facilities for the Croatan Indians, Citizens of Robeson County, North Carolina.” 2 Feb. 1889. Rpt. in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit L9.

1307

1887 North Carolina Public Laws ch. 254, “An Act to Amend Section One Thousand Eight Hundred and Ten of the Code.” 7 March 1887. Rpt. in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit L7.

1308

1887 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 400, “An Act to Establish a Normal School in the County of Robeson.” 7 March 1887. Rpt. in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit L6; Dial and Eliades (entry 54), Appendix B; and Eliades and Oxendine (entry 264), Appendix A.

1306

1885 Laws of North Carolina ch. 51, “An Act to Provide for Separate Schools for Croatan Indians in Robeson County.” 10 Feb. 1885. Rpt. in Dial and Eliades (entry 54), Appendix B, and in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit L 51/2.

1305

1871-’72 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 122, “An Act Concerning the Robeson County Outlaws.” 8 Feb. 1872

1304

1870-’71 North Carolina Session Laws ch. 68, “An Act Authorizing the Governor to Offer a Reward for the Arrest of Henry B. Lowery and Others.” 18 Feb. 1871