Origins of the tribe

Key Sources

Record Number Citation
THOM001

Thomas, Robert K. A report on research of Lumbee origins. Unpublished manuscript, 1976?  71 pages. Key source

Sources

Record Number Citation
LOCK060

Locklear, James. “Painting captures Lumbee-Klan clash.” The Fayetteville Observer (Fayetteville, NC). October 19, 2015

566

“How We Came to Be.”  Lumberton: Robeson County Board of Education, Title IV Compensatory Indian Education Program, n. d.  11 p.

536

McKay, Arnold A.  “Nobody Knows Anything about the Croatans.”  The State 1.39 (24 Feb. 1934): 1-2.

529

National Anthropological Archives.  Smithsonian Institution.  Washington, DC.  Manuscript 3775.  Collector: J. N. B. Hewitt. nd.

LOWR004

Origin of the Croatan Indians. As told by James Lowry of Robeson Co., now of State Prison, Raleigh, N. C. 3 p. No date.

HUNT006

Hunt, Cynthia L. “Looking back while walking forward (column): Federally commissioned reports.” Carolina Indian Voice 18 May 2000: 4.

KNIC006

Knick, Stanley. “Along the Robeson Trail (column).” Carolina Indian Voice 18 February 1999: 5. 

KNIC005

Knick, Stanley. “Along the Robeson Trail (column).” Carolina Indian Voice 4 February 1999: 6.

ALLE001

Allen, S.D. “More on the free black population of the Southern Appalachian mountains: speculations on the North African connection.” Journal of Black Studies 25.6 (July 1995): 651-671.

579

Knick, Stan.  “How Long Have the Lumbees Been Here?”  Robesonian 16 Jan. 1992: 4A.

578b

Barnett, Barbara.  “Historian Claims Evidence for Theory on Lost Colony.”  Charlotte Observer 3 Feb. 1986: B1-2.

578a

White, Wesley.  “The American Indian Population in Robeson County, N.C. from 1837-1854.”  Report for Lumbee River Legal Services.  15 Jan. 1986.  [Not seen.]

510

Baxter, James Phinney.  “Raleigh’s Lost Colony.”  New England Magazine n.s. 11 (1894-1895): 565-87.

577

“‘Lost Colony’–A Mystery Now Solved?”  U.S. News and World Report 97.2 (9 July 1984): 61.  Rpt. in CIV 5 July 1984: 7.

576

Henige, David.  “Origin Traditions of American Racial Isolates: A Case of Something Borrowed.”  Appalachian Journal 11.3 (Spring 1984): 201-13.

573

Oakley, Eve.  “James Lowery: Seeking the Truth.”  Fayetteville Observer 12 July 1983: 10A.

575

White, Wes.  “Summary of a Restricted Report on Lumbee Origins Made by David Wilkins in 1983.”   Unpublished typescript.  N.d.  6 p.

571

Johnson, F. Roy.  The Lost Colony in Fact and Legend.  Murfreesboro, NC: Johnson Publishing Co., 1983.  Pp. 83-85.

572

Stick, David.  Roanoke Island: The Beginnings of English America.  Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1983.  Pp. 231-33, 241-43, 245.

570

Hunter, Marvin N.  “A Watery Fate for the Lost Colony.”  The State 50.4 (Sept. 1982): 8-10.

569

Thomas, Maude.  Away Down Home: A History of Robeson County, North Carolina.  Lumberton: Historic Robeson, 1982.  Index.  By May Bell Lontz, et al.  Lumberton: Historic Robeson, 1988.

567

Durant, David N.  Raleigh’s Lost Colony.  New York: Atheneum, 1981.  P. 164.

568

Roland, Donna.  Grandfather’s Stories.  Illus. Gene Locklear.  El Cajon, CA: Open My World, 1981.  28 p.

567

Durant, David N.  Raleigh’s Lost Colony.  New York: Atheneum, 1981.  P. 164.

564

White, Wes.  “A Report on the Origins of the Lumbee Indians: A Somewhat Revised and Proofread Version.”  Unpub. typescript.  1 April 1978.

563

Nelson, Bryce.  “Looking for a Little Anthropological Delight?”  Washington Post 12 March 1978: G22.

562

Lawing, Michelle F.  “The origin of the Robeson County Indians: A preliminary study.”  Unpublished ms.  [N.C. Commission of Indian Affairs, 1978.]

561

Sisevic, Ivo.  “Kroatski Indijanci: Tragom historijskih Podataka i Nekih Jezicnih Tragova.”  Dubrovnik: Nase More, 1976.  28p.

559

Arnett, Ethel Stephens.  The Saura and Keyauwee Indians in the Land That Became Guilford, Randolph, and Rockingham.  Greensboro: Media, Inc., 1975.

WILL002

Williams, Charles T., II. The Kinnakeeter. New York: Vantage P, 1975. 141p.

560

Bible, Jean Patterson.  “Are They Kin to the ‘Lost Colony’?”  Melungeons Yesterday and Today.  Rogersville, TN: East Tennessee Printing Co., 1975.  Pp. 88-92.

558

Shepard, Edith Vines.  “Our Roanoke Island Heritage.”  Carolina Indian Voice 5 July 1973: 1, 3; 12 July 1973: 1, 3.

557

Johnson, F. Roy.  The Algonquians.  Murfreesboro, NC: Johnson Pub. Co., 1972.  Vol. 2, pp. 148-50.

556

“Robeson Field May Hold Grave of Virginia Dare.”  Robesonian 16 Aug. 1970: 12D.

HUGU001

Huguenin, Charles A., and Robert M. Dell. “The Lumbee (or Lumber) Indians of South Carolina. Descendants of the Hatteras Indians of Croatan (Portsmouth Island) and the English of the 'Lost Colony' of Roanoke (Cedar Island). Part 2.” NEARA Newsletter (Milford, N.H.: New England Antiquities Research Association) 7.3 (1970): 53-55.

555

Spearman, Walter.  “The Lost Colony of Roanoke Island.”  American History Illustrated 4.2 (1969): 22-30.

505

Lawson, John. A new voyage to Carolina. 1709. Ed. Hugh Talmage Lefler. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1967. P. [69].

554

Dunbar, Gary S.  “The Hatteras Indians of North Carolina.”  Ethnohistory 7.4 (Fall 1960): 410-18.

553

Prpic, George J.  “Early Croatian Contacts with America and the Mystery of the Croatans: Were Some Croats Present at the Discovery of America?”  Journal of Croatian Studies 1 (1960): 6-24.

552

Rutledge, Archibald.  “The Lost Colony.”  From the Hills to the Sea: Fact and Legend of the Carolinas.  Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1958.  Pp. 30-41.

551

Crockett, Charles.  “Warren ‘Issues’ Believe Croatans Their Ancestors; Clues Few.”  News and Observer 9 Aug. 1953: Sec. 4 p. 2.

550

Brown, Dick.  “This Carolina Mystery Still Unsolved.”  News and Observer 19 July 1953:  Sec. 4 p. 1.

549

Lowry, D. F.  “No Mystery.”  The State 20.29 (20 Dec. 1952): 24.

548

Stick, David.  “The Lost Colony ‘Mystery’.”  The State 17 (2 July 1949): 11, 20-21.

546

Robinson, Melvin.  Riddle of the Lost Colony.  New Berlin, NC: Owen G. Dunn, 1946.  64p.

547

Swanton, John R.  The Indians of the Southeastern United States.  (Smithsonian Institution.  Bureau of American Ethnology.  Bulletin 137)  Washington: GPO, 1946.  Pp. 112, 145, 178, 183.

545

Lawrence, R. C.  “Background of the Croatans.”  The State 13 (20 Oct. 1945): 7.

544

Mook, Maurice A.  “Algonkian Ethnohistory of the Carolina Sound.”  Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 34.7 (15 July 1944): 213-28.

543

Sparks, Boyden.  “Writ on Rocke: Has America’s First Mystery Been Solved?”  Saturday Evening Post 26 April 1941: 9.

304

Thompson, Marshall.  “Ethnologist Links Robeson Indians with ‘Lost Colony’.”  Greensboro Daily News 1 Dec. 1940: A9.

542

Speck, Frank G.  “The Catawba Nation and Its Neighbors.”  North Carolina Historical Review 16.4 (Oct. 1939): 404-17.

541

Lawrence, Robert Carbelle. “As You Love Your State, Hold Robeson.” The State of Robeson. Lumberton: J. J. Little and Ives, 1939.  Pp. 111-20.

 

540

“Thinks Virginia Dare’s Grave May Be in Robeson.”  Greensboro Daily News 8 May 1938: Sec. 3 p. 1.

539

Pearce, Haywood J.  “New Light on the Roanoke Colony: A Preliminary Examination of a Stone Found in Chowan County, North Carolina.”  Journal of Southern History 4.2 (May 1938): [148]-63.

538

Swanton, John R.  “Geographical Record--North America--The Croatan Indians.”  Geographical Review 28 (1938): 323-24.

537

Rights, Douglas L.  “The Lost Colony Legend.”  Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of North Carolina 1.2 (Sept. 1934): 3-7.

535

Swanton, John R. “Probable identity of the 'Croatan Indians'.” U.S. Dept. of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Washington, DC, 1933. 5p.

534

Woods, Lenora W.  “Tribe Known as Croatans Thought to be Remnant of Mysterious ‘Lost Colony’.”  Charlotte Observer 27 Oct. 1929: Sec. 3 p. 9.

533

Jenkins, Paul B.  “American Indian Cross-Bow.”  Wisconsin Archeologist 8.4 (1928-29): 132-35.

532

Lindquist, G. E. E.  “The Lost Colony of Roanoke Today.”  The Southern Workman 57.10 (October 1928): [442]-44.

531

McFarland, A. J.  “The Lost Colony.”  Popular Educator 40 (April 1923): 464-66.

530

Ashe, S. A.  “Correct Names of Indians in Robeson County.”  [article, 192?]  [UNC-WL Clippings File, “Indians of North Carolina,” vol. 3, p. 39.]

528

“Monument to H. McMillan: Prominent Indian Suggests that Indians of Robeson Erect Monument to ... Their Late Friend and Benefactor.”  Robesonian 9 March 1916: 1.

527b

“Hamilton McMillan Passes.”  Robesonian 2 March 1916: 3.

527a

“Report on Indians: Special Indian Agent McPherson, Who Spent Several Weeks in Robeson Studying History and Ways of These People, Makes Report.”  Robesonian 20 May 1915: 7.

526

Fitch, William Edward.  The First Founders in America, with Facts to Prove that Sir Walter Raleigh’s Lost Colony Was Not Lost.  New York Society of the Order of the Founders and Patriots of America, 29 Oct. 1913.  40 pp.

525

“A British View of the Croatans.”  Robesonian 25 Sept 1913: 3.

524

Terry, G. Cunningham.  “Sir Walter Raleigh’s Lost Colony of Roanoke.”  Blackwood’s Magazine 194 no. 1175 (Sept. 1913): 320-28.

523

Dart, A. D.  “Raleigh’s Lost Colony.”  The Southern Workman [Hampton, VA: Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute] 42 (August 1913): 445-46.

522

McLean, Angus W.  “Historical Sketch of the Indians of Robeson County.”  Statement before the House Committee on Indian Affairs, 14 Feb. 1913.  Hearings on S. 3258 (entry 1326), pp.19-25.  Rpt. in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit F.

521

Mooney, James.  "Comments recorded in: Proceedings of the Anthropological Society of Washington.  Meeting of October 24, 1911."  American Anthropologist ns 14 (1912): 563.

520

McMillan, Hamilton.  “The Croatans.”  North Carolina Booklet 10.3 (Jan. 1911): 115-21.

519

Keokuk, Fanny.  “The Croatan Indians.”  Indian Craftsman [US Indian School, Carlisle, PA] 2.3 (Nov. 1909): 22.

518

Ashe, Samuel A’Court.  History of North Carolina.  Greensboro: Charles L. Van Noppen, 1908.  Vol. 1, pp. 20-21, 286-87.

517

Ford, Alexander Hume.  “The Finding of Raleigh’s Lost Colony.”  Appleton’s Magazine 10 (July 1907): 22-31. Rpt. in Charlotte Daily Observer 7 July 1907: Sec. 2 p. 4.

516

Mangum, O. R.  “The ‘Lost Colony’ Found.”  Wake Forest Student 25.7 (April 1906): 517-25.

515

Proctor, James D.  “The Croatan Indian: An Interesting Account of the Lost Colony.”  The Argus 22 July 1904: 4.

514

Stringfield, Mary Love.  “The Lost Colony of Sir Walter Raleigh.”  American Monthly Magazine [National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution] 6 (June 1900): 1159-63.

513

McMillan, Hamilton.  The Lost Colony Found: An Historical Sketch of the Discovery of the Croatan Indians.  With: Their Advance Movement: Condition Before and After the War, Progress in Civilization and Religion.  By the Rev. J. J. Blanks.  Lumberton: Robesonian Job Print., [c1898?]  35 p.

512

Melton, Frances Jones.  “Croatans: The Lost Colony of America.”  Mid-Contintinent Magazine 6.3 (July 1895): [195]-202.

511

Wilson, E. Y.  “The Lost Colony of Roanoke.”  The Canadian Magazine 4 (April 1895): [500]-504.

509

Weeks, Stephen B.  “Raleigh’s Settlement on Roanoke Island: An Historical Survival.”  Magazine of American History 25 (Feb. 1891): 127-39.

508

Weeks, Stephen B. “The Lost Colony of Roanoke: Its fate and survival.” Papers of the American Historical Association 5.4 (1891): 439-480. Summarized in Annual Report of the American Historical Association 1890: 97-98. Reprinted as a separate; New York: Knickerbocker, 1891. Rpt. in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit CC.

507

Johns Hopkins University Seminary of History and Politics.  Minutes.  April 18, April 25, and May 9, 1890.  Vol. 3, pp. 701-707, 716.  Manuscript.  Ferdinand Hamburger, Jr. Archives.  Johns Hopkins U, Baltimore, MD.

506

McMillan, Hamilton.  Sir Walter Raleigh’s Lost Colony:  An historical sketch of the attempts of Sir Walter Raleigh to establish a colony in Virginia, with the traditions of an Indian tribe in North Carolina.  Indicating the fate of the colony of Englishmen left on Roanoke Island in 1587.  Wilson, NC: Advance Presses, 1888.  29 p.  Rev. ed.  Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton, 1907.  46 p.  Rpt. in McPherson (entry 49), Exhibit C.  Microfilmed by the Library of Congress.