Bell, Ronny A.; Sara A. Quandt; Helen A. Shaw; and Mark B. Dignan. “Differences in dietary intake between smokers and nonsmokers among Lumbee Indian women in North Carolina.” American Journal of Health Promotion 12.2 (1997): 94-97.
Studied a sample of 120 Lumbee women in Robeson County, 28 of them current smokers. Each completed a 60-item questionnaire called the Block FFQ which asked about their food and food group consumption during the preceding year. Each also completed a 3-day food record; the days were not consecutive and included one weekend day. The researchers analyzed the Block FFQ using DIETANAL software. Although the sample size was small, results were similar to other studies in that smokers' diets were poorer than nonsmokers'. Dietary fiber was much lower for smokers, and smokers consumed more servings of alcohol, eggs, butter, pork, and high-sugar foods. Smokers consumed a good deal less fruit than nonsmokers, and their consumption of several nutrients was below 80% of the RDA. Two charts show daily or weekly intakes of these foods and nutrients for smokers vs. nonsmokers, along with the p value.