Bell, Ronny Antonio; Helen Anderson Shaw; and Mark Boberg Dignan. “Dietary intake of Lumbee Indian women in Robeson County, North Carolina.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 95.12 (December 1995): 1426-28.
The study's purpose was to obtain baseline data on diet among Lumbee women, so that, if deemed necessary, a nutrition education program could be established to help reduce the risk of diet-related diseases such as cancer, heart disease, atherosclerosis, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, which in general are more prevalent among Native Americans in North Carolina than among whites.
The authors recruited 107 Lumbee women aged 21-60 who had lived in Robeson County at least two years, were not pregnant, and had no known disease which could affect their diet. The women were interviewed to obtain dietary and demographic information and were asked to complete a 3-day food record which recorded everything eaten during a 24-hour day. The women also completed a 60-item food frequency questionnaire. Their results were compared (see Tables 1 and 2) with results of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II); Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs); recommendations from the American Heart Association and National Cancer Institute; and other studies of dietary intake of the Hvalapai, Seminole, Pima, Standing Rock Sioux, Navajo, and Waccamaw Siouan. Lumbee women were found to have a high intake of fat; low intakes of calcium, iron, and dietary fiber; and nearly adequate intakes of vitamins A and C. Energy intake was lower than the RDA, and fat intake was higher than recommended but similar to results of a national study. Low fiber and mineral intakes were similar to levels of these nutrients among U.S. women in general.