Maynor, Malinda. “Making Christianity sing: the origins and experience of Lumbee Indian and African American church music.” In: Confounding the color line: the Indian-Black experience in North America. Ed. James F. Brooks. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 2002. Pages 321-345.
This essay begins with comments on the “cultural amnesia” that has caused many Native Americans and African Americans to define themselves by their otherness, attempting to be as different and unusual as possible. Maynor notes that, in both cultures, religious music binds the communities together and serves to transmit oral traditions. Next, Maynor explains (with some necessary speculation) early influences on Lumbee music. Then she describes contemporary Lumbee religious music, usefully illustrated the definition with a lengthy quotation from her uncle, Rev. Michael Cummings. There is also discussion of the Lumbee people's gospel sings, their early conversion to Christianity, Lumbee long-meter style, Lumbee singing at camp meetings, and shape-note singing and use of shape-note tune books.