Ross, Thomas E. “The Lumbees: Population Growth of a Non-Reservation Indian Tribe.” A Cultural Geography of North American Indians. Ed. Thomas E. Ross. Boulder: Westview, 1987. Pp. 297-309.
Reasons for Lumbees’ rapid population increase during the 20th century include high birth rate, low death rate, and increased willingness to be identified as Indian. Better economic status has decreased out migration and increased returning home. Gives the number of Lumbees in each census since 1890.